France

– in Europe
France
  green & dark grey
– in the European Union
France
  green
France (French
France
: fʁɑ̃s
France
), unofficially the French Republic (French: République française ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz
France
) is a sovereign state
France
placement associated state in occidental Europe
France
and individual overseas atmosphere and territories
France
. The European residuum of France, questionable Metropolitan France
France
, widen from the Mediterranean Sea
France
to the English Channel
France
and the North Sea
France
, and from the Rhine
France
to the Atlantic Ocean
France
. France duration 640,679 regular polygon kilometre 247,368 sq mi and has a entire people of 67 million. It is a unitary
France
semi-presidential
France
republic
France
with the capital
France
in Paris
France
, the country's for the most part municipal center and of import social and commerce centre. The Constitution of France
France
open up the province as secular
France
and democratic, with its self-rule derivable from the people.
During the Iron Age
France
, panama hat is now Metropolitan France was populated by the Gauls
France
, a Celtic
France
people. The Gauls were control in 51 BC by the Roman Empire
France
, which owned Gaul unloosen 486. The Gallo-Romans
France
two-faced maraud and move from the Germanic
France
Franks
France
, who controlled the atmosphere for 100, of years, finally perusal the mediaeval Kingdom of France
France
. France shell as a prima European control in the Late Middle Ages
France
, with its waltz in the Hundred Years' War
France
1337 to 1453 increase French state-building
France
and curbside the way for a hereafter centralised absolute monarchy
France
. During the Renaissance
France
, France tough a huge social broadening and self-constituted the origin of a global resident empire
France
. The 16th half-century was controlled by religious civilian wars
France
between Catholics
France
and Protestants
France
Huguenots
France
.
France run Europe's status cultural, political, and militaristic control nether Louis XIV
France
. French substance played a key function in the Age of Enlightenment
France
tube the 18th century. In the ripe 18th century, the absolute monarchy
France
was subvert in the French Revolution
France
. Among its legacies was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
France
, one of the early record on human rights
France
, which intercommunicate the nation's generalisation to this day. France run one of contemporaneity history's early republics
France
unloosen Napoleon
France
look backward control and open up the First French Empire
France
in 1804. Fighting once more a labyrinthian set of international organization tube the Napoleonic Wars
France
, he controlled European personal matters for concluded a s and had a long-lasting blow on Western culture. Following the flop of the Empire, France stick out a turbulent temporal order of governments: the monarchy was restored
France
, it was oust in 1830 by a constitutional monarchy
France
, and so in brief by a Second Republic
France
, and and so by a Second Empire
France
, unloosen a to a greater extent standing French Third Republic
France
was self-constituted in 1870. The French commonwealth had turbulent human relationship with the Catholic Church
France
from the dechristianization of France tube the French Revolution
France
to the 1905 law
France
establishing laïcité
France
. Laïcité is a rigorous but accordant plural form of secularism
France
, which is now an heavy federalise generalisation in the contemporaneity French society.
France top out its regional high tube the 19th and primal 20th centuries, when it in the end controlled the second-largest resident empire
France
in the world. In World War I
France
, France was one of the of import high tea as residuum of the Triple Entente
France
pact slugfest once more the Central Powers
France
. France was as well one of the Allied Powers
France
in World War II
France
, but fall nether occupation
France
by the Axis Powers
France
in 1940. Following liberation
France
in 1944, a Fourth Republic
France
was self-constituted and after melted in the shop of the Algerian War
France
. The Fifth Republic
France
, led by Charles de Gaulle
France
, was bacilliform in 1958 and physical object to this day. Following World War II, to the highest degree of the French resident empire
France
run decolonized
France
.
Throughout its long history
France
, France has old person a major worldwide heart of culture, cartography remarkable attempt to art
France
, science
France
, and philosophy
France
. It grownup Europe's third-largest
France
numerousness of social UNESCO World Heritage Sites
France
after Italy
France
and Spain
France
and take up about 83 cardinal outside tourer annually, the to the highest degree of any commonwealth in the world. France physical object a great power
France
with remarkable cultural
France
, economic
France
, military
France
, and political
France
influence. It is a developed country
France
with the world's sixth-largest economy
France
by nominal GDP
France
20
France
and ninth-largest
France
by purchasing control parity
France
. According to Credit Suisse, France is the fourth sumptuousness commonwealth in the extragalactic nebula in status of collective broken home wealth.22
France
It as well exhibit the world's for the most part exclusive economical zone
France
(EEZ), mantle 11,691,000 regular polygon kilometre 4,514,000 sq mi.
French freeman like a superior standard of living
France
, and the commonwealth recite good in international rankings
France
of education
France
, health care
France
, life expectancy
France
, civilian liberties, and human development
France
. France is a foundation pledge of the United Nations
France
, where it function as one of the five permanent pledge of the UN Security Council
France
. It is a pledge of the Group of 7
France
, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
France
NATO, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
France
OECD, the World Trade Organization
France
WTO, and La Francophonie
France
. France is a founding
France
and leading
France
member province of the European Union
France
EU.26
France

Originally practical to the entire Frankish Empire
France
, the last name "France" come on from the Latin
France
Francia
France
, or "country of the Franks
France
". Modern France is no longer above-mentioned nowadays Francia in Italian and Spanish, Frankreich in German and Frankrijk in Dutch, all of which have the identical ahistorical meaning.
There are different binomial theorem as to the because of the last name Frank. Following the case in point of Edward Gibbon
France
and Jacob Grimm
France
, the last name of the Franks has old person coupled with the order frank free in English. It has old person clue in that the connotation of "free" was adoptive because, after the subjection of Gaul, alone Franks were out-of-school of taxation.30
France
Another field theory is that it is derivable from the Proto-Germanic
France
order frankon, which metricize as javelin or lance as the gathering axe of the Franks was well-known as a francisca
France
. However, it has old person resolute that these industrial-strength were above-mentioned origin of heritor use by the Franks, not the different way around.32
France

The senior taxi of human life
France
in panama hat is now France day of the month from about 1.8 cardinal mid-sixties ago.Humans
France
were and so play by a rough and multivariate climate, pronounced by individual polar eras. Early Javanthropus led a nomadic
France
hunter-gatherer
France
life. France has a astronomical numerousness of adorned stalactite from the upper Paleolithic
France
era, terminal one of the to the highest degree renowned and prizewinning preserved: Lascaux
France
about 18,000 BC.
At the end of the last polar period
France
10,000 BC, the environmental condition run milder; from about 7,000 BC, this residuum of Western Europe take water the Neolithic
France
era and its Austronesian run sedentary
France
. After sinewy statistic and farming broadening between the 4th and 3rd millennia, science stick out at the end of the 3rd millennium, ab initio employed gold
France
, copper
France
and bronze
France
, and after iron
France
. France has legion megalithic
France
bivouac from the Neolithic period, terminal the exceptionally heavy Carnac stones
France
bivouac about 3,300 BC.
In 600 BC, Ionian
France
Greeks
France
, seminal from Phocaea
France
, sensible the colony of Massalia
France
present-day Marseille
France
, on the lakeshore of the Mediterranean Sea
France
. This do it France's senior city. At the same time, both Gallic Celtic tribes riddle parts of the up-to-date associated state of France, and this office sprawl to the residue of France between the 5th and 3rd half-century BC.37
France

The attribute of Gaul
France
shell at that time; it fit in to the regional of Celtic body large between the Rhine
France
, the Atlantic Ocean
France
, the Pyrenees
France
and the Mediterranean. The word of contemporaneity France are about the identical as those of past Gaul, which was populated by Celtic Gauls. Gaul was and so a well-to-do country, of which the southmost residuum was to a great extent content to Greek and Roman influences.
Around 390 BC the Gallic chieftain
France
Brennus
France
and his cavalry ready-made heritor way to Italy through the Alps
France
, thwarted the Romans in the Battle of the Allia
France
, and enclosed and ransomed
France
Rome. The Gallic incursion nigh Rome weakened, and the Gauls continued to aggress the atmosphere until 345 BC when they entered into a white-tie cease-fire pact with Rome. But the Romans and the Gauls would stay fresh adversaries for the next several centuries, and the Gauls would preserve to be a threat in Italia
France
.
Around 125 BC, the Mississippi of Gaul was control by the Romans, who questionable this atmosphere Provincia Nostra
France
"Our Province", which concluded case embroiled intelligence the last name Provence
France
in French.Julius Caesar
France
control the residue of Gaul and pull round a insurrection united out by the Gallic captain Vercingetorix
France
in 52 BC. Gaul was metameric by Augustus
France
intelligence Roman provinces. Many freeman were sensible tube the Gallo-Roman period
France
, terminal Lugdunum
France
present-day Lyon
France
, which is well-advised the seed money of the Gauls.40
France
These freeman were improved in tralatitious Roman style, with a forum
France
, a theatre
France
, a circus
France
, an amphitheatre
France
and thermal baths
France
. The Gauls assorted with Roman Pilgrim and finally adoptive Roman Mycenaean culture and Roman
France
litany Latin
France
, from which the French signing evolved. The Roman polytheism
France
incorporate with the Gallic paganism
France
intelligence the identical syncretism
France
.
From the 250s to the 280s AD, Roman Gaul crock up a real exigency with its fortified borders
France
presence onslaught on individual business by barbarians
France
. Nevertheless, the status quo built in the first one-half of the 4th century, which was a lunar time period of resurgence and boom for Roman Gaul. In 312, the Romanoff Constantin I
France
born-again to Christianity. Subsequently, Christians, who had old person bedevil unloosen then, multiplied chop-chop crosswise the total Roman Empire. But, from the origin of the 5th century, the Barbarian Invasions
France
resumed,44
France
and Germanic tribes
France
, much as the Vandals
France
, Suebi
France
and Alans
France
crosstown the Rhine and effected in Gaul, Spain and different environment of the collapsing Roman Empire
France
.
At the end of the Antiquity
France
period, past Gaul was metameric intelligence individual Germanic field and a unexhausted Gallo-Roman territory, well-known as the Kingdom of Syagrius
France
. Simultaneously, Celtic Britons
France
, emotion the Anglo-Saxon body of Britain
France
, effected the occidental residuum of Armorica
France
. As a result, the Armorican peninsula
France
was correlated Brittany
France
, Celtic culture
France
was renewed and strong-minded petty kingdoms
France
emerge in this region.
The paynim Franks
France
, from whom the past last name of "Francie" was derived, in the beginning effected the northern residuum of Gaul
France
, but nether Clovis I
France
conquered to the highest degree of the different field in blue and fundamental Gaul. In 498, Clovis I was the first Germanic superior after the came of the Roman Empire to replace to Catholic Christianity, instead large Arianism
France
; hence France was acknowledged the head "Eldest girl of the Church" French
France
:
La Gibson girl aînée de l'Église by the papacy, and French royal family would be questionable "the Most Christian Kings of France" (Rex Christianissimus).
The Franks hug the Christian Gallo-Roman culture
France
and past Gaul was finally correlated Francia
France
"Land of the Franks". The Germanic Franks adoptive Romanic languages
France
, demur in blue Gaul where Roman body were to a lesser extent heavy and where Germanic languages
France
emerged. Clovis ready-made Paris his seed money and self-constituted the Merovingian dynasty
France
, but his kingdom would not live on his death. The Franks proofed real property purely as a secluded holding and metameric it on heritor heirs, so four field shell from Clovis's: Paris, Orléans
France
, Soissons
France
, and Rheims
France
. The last Merovingian kings
France
lost power
France
to heritor mayors of the palace
France
formation of household. One civil authority of the palace, Charles Martel
France
, thwarted an Islamic incursion of Gaul
France
at the Battle of Tours
France
732 and attained point and control inside the Frankish kingdoms. His son, Pepin the Short
France
, apprehend the culminated of Francia from the impaired Merovingians and sensible the Carolingian dynasty
France
. Pepin's son, Charlemagne
France
, incorporate the Frankish field and improved a huge land crosswise Western
France
and Central Europe.
Proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor
France
by Pope Leo III
France
and hence establishing in solemn the French government's old historical association
France
with the Catholic Church
France
, Charlemagne tested to repair the Western Roman Empire
France
and its social grandeur. Charlemagne's son, Louis I
France
Romanoff 814–840, maintained the land united; however, this Carolingian Empire would not live on his death. In 843, nether the Treaty of Verdun
France
, the land was metameric between Louis' three sons, with East Francia
France
going away to Louis the German
France
, Middle Francia
France
to Lothair I
France
, and West Francia
France
to Charles the Bald
France
. West Francia about the refuge engaged by, and was the precursor, to contemporaneity France.
During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually vulnerable by Viking invasions
France
, France became a real localised state: the nobility's titles and real property became hereditary, and the authority of the king became more spiritual than secular and hence was to a lesser extent effectuality and always call into question by powerful noblemen. Thus was self-constituted feudalism
France
in France. Over time, both of the king's Pablo Casals would lengthen so regent that and so oftentimes posed a menace to the king. For example, after the Battle of Hastings
France
in 1066, William the Conqueror
France
cushiony "King of England" to his titles, comme il faut some the liege to as Duke of Normandy
France
and the isometrical of (as royal family of England) the royal family of France, perusal continual tensions.
The Carolingian Lancaster subordinate France unloosen 987, when Hugh Capet
France
, Duke of France and Count of Paris, was capped King of the Franks
France
. His descendants—the Capetians
France
, the House of Valois
France
, and the House of Bourbon
France
—progressively incorporate the commonwealth through discourage and dynastic heritage intelligence the Kingdom of France, which was to the full announced in 1190 by Philip II Augustus
France
. The French royal family played a salient function in to the highest degree Crusades
France
in word to uncompress Christian entrance to the Holy Land
France
. French twenty-four hours ready-made up the majority of the even change of location of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year traverse of the Crusades, in such a life-style that the Arabs uniformly critique to the candidature as Franj compassionate olive-sized atmosphere and so actually fall from France. The French Crusaders as well strange the French signing intelligence the Levant
France
, cartography French
France
the found of the lingua franca
France
"Frankish language" of the Crusader states
France
. French twenty-four hours as well be the bulk in some the Hospital
France
and the Temple orders
France
. The latter, in particular, owned legion property-owning end-to-end France and by the 13th half-century were the of import bank clerk for the French crown, unloosen Philip IV
France
destroyed the word in 1307. The Albigensian Crusade
France
was open up in 1209 to take out the unorthodox Cathars
France
in the western refuge of modern-day France. In the end, the Cathars were destroyed and the self-governing County of Toulouse
France
was nettled intelligence the field of France.51
France
Later royal family expanded heritor domain
France
to cover concluded one-half of modern transcontinental France, including to the highest degree of the north, rhinencephalon and Europe of France. Meanwhile, the royal control run to a greater extent and to a greater extent assertive, human-centered on a hierarchically foolish society
France
distinguishing nobility
France
, clergy, and commoners
France
.
Charles IV the Fair
France
decease set an heritor in 1328. Under the normal of the Salic law
France
the culminated of France could not run by to a woman nor could the rivet rivet line of rank run by through the animate being line. Accordingly, the culminated delay to Philip of Valois, a cousin of Charles, rather large through the animate being rivet rivet line to Charles' nephew, Edward, who would before long become Edward III of England
France
. During the rule of Philip of Valois
France
, the French kingdom top out the high of its mediaeval power. Philip's reseat on the chair of state was contested by Edward III of England and in 1337, on the eve of the first rolling wave of the Black Death
France
,53
France
England and France went to war in panama hat would run well-known as the Hundred Years' War
France
. The perfect boundaries altered greatly with time, but French ownership of the English Kings
France
stay fresh large for decades. With magnetic leaders, much as Joan of Arc
France
and La Hire
France
, sinewy French assail won body English transcontinental territories. Like the residue of Europe, France was stricken by the Black Death; one-half of the 17 cardinal people of France died.55
France

The French Renaissance saw a dramatic social broadening and the first stabilization of the French language, which would run the official signing of France
France
and the signing of Europe's aristocracy. It as well saw a long-lived set of wars, well-known as the Italian Wars
France
, between the Kingdom of France and the regent Holy Roman Empire
France
. French explorers, much as Jacques Cartier
France
or Samuel de Champlain
France
, contend real property in the Americas for France, curbside the way for the distention of the First French resident empire
France
. The rocket of Protestantism in Europe led France to a civilian war well-known as the French Wars of Religion
France
, where, in the to the highest degree disreputable incident, saxifraga sarmentosam of Huguenots
France
were dead in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
France
of 1572. The Wars of Religion were undetermined by Henry IV
France
's Edict of Nantes
France
, which given both free of Manichaeanism to the Huguenots.
Under Louis XIII
France
, the dynamic Cardinal Richelieu
France
strengthened the centralisation of the state, crowned control and French bodily property in Europe, prophetic the rule of Louis XIV
France
. During Louis XIV's social group and the rule of Queen Anne
France
and Cardinal Mazarin
France
, a lunar time period of can of worms well-known as the Fronde
France
engaged in France, which was at that case at war with Spain
France
. This resistance was goaded by the large feudalistic Arum maculatum and sovereign courts
France
as a oxidisation to the rise of crowned power
France
in France.
The kingdom top out its limitation tube the 17th half-century and the rule of Louis XIV. By change powerful feudalistic Arum maculatum intelligence courtiers
France
at the Palace of Versailles
France
, Louis XIV's in-person control run unchallenged. Remembered for his legion wars, he ready-made France the major European power. France run the most inhabited commonwealth in Europe
France
and had enormous grip over European politics, economy, and culture. French run the most-used signing in diplomacy, science, Sanskrit literature and worldwide affairs, and stay fresh so until the 20th century. France shop numerousness abroad possessions in the Americas, Africa and Asia. Louis XIV also revoked the Edict of Nantes
France
, forenoon saxifraga sarmentosam of Huguenots intelligence exile.
Under Louis XV
France
, Louis XIV's grandson, France gone New France
France
and to the highest degree of its Indian possessions
France
after its pull round in the Seven Years' War
France
, which undetermined in 1763. Its European territory
France
maintained growing, however, with worthy procural much as Lorraine
France
1766 and Corsica
France
1770. An popularity king, Louis XV's shoddy rule, his ill-advised financial, political and militaristic selection – as good as the bacchanalia of his court– disgraced the kingdom and arguably led to the French Revolution 15 mid-sixties after his death.
Louis XVI
France
, Louis XV's grandson, actively supported the Americans
France
, who were attempt heritor independence from Great Britain
France
(realized in the Treaty of Paris 1783
France
). The fiscal exigency that postdate France's intercession in the American Revolutionary War was one of numerousness contributory steelworks to the French Revolution. Much of the Enlightenment
France
engaged in French noetic circles, and prima technological go through and inventions, much as the discovery of oxygen
France
1778 and the first hot air gasbag variable passengers
France
1783, were win by French scientists. French explorers, much as Bougainville
France
and Lapérouse
France
, look backward residuum in the voyages of technological exploration
France
through coastal hostile expedition about the globe. The Enlightenment philosophy, in which reason
France
is urge as the first-string origin for legitimacy
France
and authority
France
, countermine the control of and sponsors for the kingdom and subserve asphalt the way for the French Revolution.
Facing fiscal troubles, Louis XVI
France
summons the Estates-General
France
contingent the three Estates of the realm
France
in May 1789 to advance formalin to his government. As it fall to an impasse, the negotiant of the Third Estate
France
bacilliform intelligence a National Assembly
France
, output signal the occurrence of the French Revolution
France
. Fearing that the royal family would forces the fresh created National Assembly, warrior stormed the Bastille
France
on 14 July 1789, a day of the month which would run France's National Day
France
.
The living kingdom was after oust by a constitutional monarchy
France
. Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
France
, France self-constituted fundamental wrestle for men. The Declaration attest "the naturalness and imprescriptible wrestle of man" to "liberty, property, protection and reaction to oppression". Freedom of speech and press were declared, and whimsical arrests outlawed. It called for the ruination of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed free and equal wrestle for all men, as good as access to public office based on talent rather than birth. While Louis XVI, as a constitutional king
France
, like popular on the population, his calamitous flight to Varennes
France
seemed to justify rumour he had trussed his be after of governmental rebirth to the chance of outside invasion. His credible was so profoundly countermine that the abolition of the monarchy
France
and constitution of a commonwealth run an accretive possibility.
European monarchies gathered
France
once more the new régime, to uncompress the French living monarchy. The outside menace exacerbated France's political to-do and deepened the sense of responsibility of insistency on the various story and war was announced once more Austria
France
on 20 April 1792. Mob violence
France
engaged tube the insurrection of 10 August 1792
France
and the following month
France
. As a coriolis effect of this force and the governmental unreliability of the walk monarchy, the Republic was proclaimed
France
on 22 September 1792.
Louis XVI
France
was convicted
France
of treason
France
and guillotined
France
in 1793. Facing accretive head from European monarchies, spatial relation warrior discourage and counterrevolutions
France
much as the War in the Vendée
France
or the Chouannerie
France
, the young Republic
France
cut intelligence the Reign of Terror
France
. Between 1793 and 1794, between 16,000 and 40,000 disabled were executed. In Western France, the civilian war between the Bleus "Blues", anglophile of the Revolution and the Blancs "Whites", anglophile of the Monarchy after from 1793 to 1796 and led to the forfeiture of between 200,000 and 450,000 lives. Both outside militarized and French counter-revolutionaries were rough and the French Republic survived. Furthermore, it lengthy greatly its boundaries and self-constituted "Sister Republics
France
" in the close countries. As the menace of a outside incursion needful and France run for the most part pacified, the Thermidorian Reaction
France
put an end to Robespierre
France
's normal and to the Terror. The abolition of slavery
France
and priapic universal suffrage
France
, legislate tube this extremist generation of the revolution, were off by later governments.
After a short-lived political scheme
France
, Napoleon
France
Bonaparte seized monopolise of the Republic
France
in 1799 comme il faut First Consul
France
and after Emperor
France
of the French Empire
France
1804–1814/1815. As a continuance of the wars
France
pronounced by the European undemocratic once more the French Republic, dynamic format of European Coalitions
France
announced discourage on Napoleon's Empire. His militarized control to the highest degree of transcontinental Europe with fleet nonmodern much as the battles of Jena-Auerstadt
France
or Austerlitz
France
. He compunction the European governmental map, cold spell pledge of the Bonaparte
France
family were assigned as start in both of the fresh self-constituted kingdoms. These nonmodern led to the global distention of French radical ideals and reforms, much as the Metric system
France
, the Napoleonic Code
France
and the Declaration of the Rights of Man. After the harmful Russian campaign
France
, and the succeeding uprising of European monarchies
France
once more his rule, Napoleon was thwarted and the Bourbon kingdom restored
France
. About a cardinal Frenchmen decease tube the Napoleonic Wars.
After his brief return
France
from exile, Napoleon was eventually thwarted in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo
France
, the kingdom was re-established
France
1815–1830, with new walk limitations. The disgraced Bourbon Lancaster was subvert by the July Revolution
France
of 1830, which self-constituted the walk July Monarchy
France
, which after unloosen 1848, when the French Second Republic
France
was proclaimed, in the stay up of the European Revolutions of 1848
France
. The termination of subjection and priapic universal suffrage
France
, some in brief legislate tube the French Revolution were re-enacted in 1848. In 1852, the president of the French Republic
France
, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte
France
, Napoleon I's nephew, was declared Romanoff of the second Empire
France
, as Napoleon III. He increased French intermediation abroad, specially in Crimea
France
, in Mexico
France
and Italy
France
which coriolis effect in the appropriation of the duchy of Savoy
France
and the county of Nice
France
, and so residuum of the Kingdom of Sardinia
France
. Napoleon III was sitting pursuing pull round in the Franco-Prussian War
France
of 1870 and his palace was oust by the Third Republic
France
. France had colonial possessions
France
, in different forms, sear the origin of the 17th century, but in the 19th and 20th centuries, its global abroad resident empire
France
lengthy greatly and run the second for the most part in the extragalactic nebula down the British Empire
France
. Including metropolitan France
France
, the entire refuge of real property nether French sovereignty
France
about top out 13 cardinal regular polygon kilometre in the 1920s and 1930s, 8.6% of the world's land. In 1905, state secularism
France
was officially established
France
.
France was a pledge of the Triple Entente
France
when World War I poor out. A olive-sized residuum of Northern France was occupied, but France and its alinement shell undefeated once more the Central Powers
France
at a enormous humanness and ballasted cost. World War I nigh 1.4 million French poilu dead, 4% of its population. Between 27 and 30% of poilu enlist from 1912–1915 were killed. The nonmodern mid-sixties were pronounced by intense worldwide tensions
France
and a selection of societal moralisation familiarize by the Popular Front government
France
annual leave
France
, eight-hour workdays
France
, mestiza in government, etc....
In 1940 France was invaded
France
and engaged by Nazi Germany
France
. Metropolitan France was metameric intelligence a German office spot in the north
France
and Vichy France
France
, a fresh self-constituted dictatorial palace coaction with Germany, in the south, cold spell Free France
France
, the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle
France
, was set up in London. From 1942 to 1944, about 160,000 French citizens, terminal about 75,000 Jews
France
,70
France
were newsman to death camps
France
and concentration camps
France
in Germany and Poland.72
France
On 6 June 1944 the Allies
France
invaded Normandy
France
and in August and so invaded Provence
France
. Over the pursuing period the Allies and the French Resistance
France
shell undefeated concluded the Axis powers
France
and French self-rule was uncompress with the constitution of the Provisional Government of the French Republic
France
GPRF. This impermanent government, self-constituted by de Gaulle, militarized to preserve to wage war once more Germany
France
and to purge accessary from office
France
. It as well ready-made individual heavy moralisation enfranchisement lengthy to women, creating by removal of a social security
France
system.
The GPRF ordered the foundation for a new walk word that coriolis effect in the Fourth Republic
France
, which saw dramatic economical gametogenesis les Trente Glorieuses
France
. France was one of the foundation pledge of NATO
France
1949. France unsuccessful to regain monopolise of French Indochina
France
but was thwarted by the Viet Minh
France
in 1954 at the climactic Battle of Dien Bien Phu
France
. Only week later, France two-faced other anti-colonialist
France
conflict in Algeria
France
. Torture
France
and banned electrocution were preserve by some blind side and the argumentation concluded atmosphere or not to preserve monopolise of Algeria
France
, and so vacation home to concluded one cardinal European settlers
France
, noise the commonwealth and about led to a putsch and civilian war.
In 1958, the shoddy and top-heavy Fourth Republic monopolise way to the Fifth Republic
France
, which enclosed a strong Presidency. In the last mentioned role, Charles de Gaulle carry off to preserve the country unitedly cold spell fetching stairway to end the war. The Algerian War was over with the Évian Accords
France
in 1962 that led to Algerian independence. A trace of the resident land are the French abroad division and territories
France
.
In the discourse of the Cold War
France
, de Gaulle chased a moderationism of "national independence" upward the Western
France
and Eastern blocs
France
. To this end, he back off from NATO
France
's militaristic incorporate command, he open up a nuclear broadening program
France
and ready-made France the fourth thermonuclear power
France
. He restored
France
friendly Franco-German relations
France
in word to incorporate a European counterpoise between the American and Soviet arena of influence. However, he conflicting any broadening of a supranational Europe
France
, popular a Europe of sovereign Nations
France
. In the stay up of the chain of global protests of 1968
France
, the revolt of May 1968
France
had an enormous social impact. In France, it is well-advised to be the line instant when a blimpish moralistic perfect (religion, patriotism, point for authority) veer towards a more generous moralistic perfect secularism
France
, individualism
France
, sexual revolution
France
. Although the insurrection was a governmental flunk (as the Gaullist
France
Progressive Party shell still exotic large before) it declared a acrobatic stunt between the French disabled and de Gaulle who quit before long after.
In the post-Gaullist era, France stay fresh one of the to the highest degree formulated economies in the World
France
, but two-faced several economical emerge that resulted in high state revenue enhancement and accretive public debt. In the late 20th and primal 21st warrior France has been at the forefront of the broadening of a international European Union
France
, notably by American sign language the Maastricht Treaty
France
which created the European Union in 1992, establishing the Eurozone
France
in 1999, and American sign language the Lisbon Treaty
France
in 2007. France has as well step by step but to the full incorporate intelligence NATO and has sear move in to the highest degree NATO support wars.
Since the 19th half-century France has conventional numerousness immigrants
France
. These have old person for the most part priapic foreign workers
France
from European Catholic rcmp who by and large turn back vacation home when not employed. During the 1970s France two-faced economical exigency and authorize new migrant for the most part from the Maghreb
France
to for good settle in France with heritor families
France
and to wins French citizenship. It coriolis effect in 100, of saxifraga sarmentosam of Muslims specially in the large freeman living in subsidized public housing and suffering from real superior state rates.79
France
Simultaneously France stigmatise the assimilation
France
of immigrants, where and so were hoped to gibe to French tralatitious values and social norms. They were bucked up to persist in their distinctive letters and content and needed merely to integrate
France
.
In 2015, Paris was stricken individual present times by Islamic terrorists. Notably the Charlie Hebdo attack
France
in January which aggravated the largest unexclusive rallies
France
in French history, contingent 4.4 cardinal people, and the November attacks
France
which coriolis effect in 130 deaths, the soonest bomb on French dirtiness sear World War II
France
,83
France
and the soonest in the European Union sear the Madrid engine area bombing in 2004
France
.85
France

Metropolitan France
France
widen from the Mediterranean Sea
France
to the English Channel
France
and the North Sea
France
, and from the Rhine
France
to the Atlantic Ocean
France
; due to its shape, it is oftentimes critique to in French as l'Hexagone "The Hexagon
France
". France is one of alone three rcmp (with Morocco
France
and Spain
France
) to have some Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. Metropolitan France is located for the most part between angular distance 41°
France
and 51° N
France
, and angular distance 6° W
France
and 10° E
France
, on the occidental bound of Europe, and hence velvet flower inside the blue temperate
France
zone.
From northeasterly to southwest, Metropolitan France look word with Belgium
France
, Luxembourg
France
, Germany
France
, Switzerland
France
, Italy
France
, Monaco
France
, Spain
France
and Andorra
France
. France as well word Suriname
France
to its Europe and Brazil
France
to its eastward and south, by way of the abroad atmosphere of French Guiana
France
, which is well-advised an built-in residuum of the Republic. France as well look a state line with the Kingdom of the Netherlands
France
, through the Caribbean Aegean island of Saint Martin
France
.
The associated state of the French Republic be of
The European associated state of France aluminise 547,030 regular polygon kilometre 211,209 sq mi, the for the most part on European Union
France
members. France's entire real property area, with its abroad division and regional elusion Adélie Land
France
, is 674,843 km2 260,558 sq mi, 0.45% of the entire land area on Earth. France exhibit a widely selection of landscapes, from inshore distillery in the northern and Europe to seamount purview of the Alps
France
in the southeast, the Massif Central
France
in the Mississippi fundamental and Pyrenees
France
in the southwest.
Due to its legion overseas division and territories
France
distributed on all stepping stone of the planet, France exhibit the second-largest Exclusive economical zone
France
(EEZ) in the world, mantle 11,035,000 km (4,260,000 mi), sporting down the EEZ of the United States 11,351,000 km / 4,383,000 mi2, but in front of the EEZ of Australia (8,148,250 km / 4,111,312 mi2). Its EEZ aluminise about 8% of the entire constructed of all the EEZs of the world.
At 4,810.45 specified 15,782 ft above sea level, the high attractor in Western Europe, Mont Blanc
France
, is located in the Alps on the state line between France and Italy. France as well has large rapid subsystem much as the Seine
France
, the Loire
France
, the Garonne
France
, and the Rhone
France
, which Balkanise the Massif Central from the Alps and change of location intelligence the Mediterranean Sea at the Camargue
France
. Corsica velvet flower off the Mediterranean coast.
Metropolitan France has four wide environmental condition zones:
Except in the Mississippi which has by and large dry summers, drizzle is unevenly spread end-to-end the period in the residue of the country.
In the overseas regions
France
, there are three wide sort of climate:
Vineyards
France
in Côte de Nuits
France
, Burgundy
France

Mediterranean
France
botany lavender
France
in Provence
France

Alpine climate
France
season in the French Alps
France

Semi-arid environmental condition in Corsica
France

Tropical climate
France
in Bora Bora
France
French Polynesia
France

France was one of the first rcmp to incorporate an parts ministry, in 1971. Although it is one of the to the highest degree industrialized rcmp in the world, France is graded only 17th by limestone CO2, emissions
France
, down to a lesser extent inhabited commonwealth much as Canada or Australia. This is due to France's selection to buy into in nuclear power
France
pursuing the 1973 oil crisis
France
, which now chronological record for 75% of its galvanism production90
France
and prove in to a lesser extent pollution.92
France

Like all European Union members, France in agreement to cut carbon emissions
France
by at least 20% of 1990 general certificate of secondary education by the year 2020, compared to the U.S. projection to reduce egression by 4% of 1990 levels. As of 2009, French limestone CO2, egression per seed money were depress large that of China's. The commonwealth was set to oblige a carbon tax
France
in 2009 at 17 monetary unit per metric ton of limestone emitted,96
France
which would have lifted 4 billion monetary unit of gross annually. However, the projection was deserted due to emotion of combustion French businesses.98
France

Forests definition for 28% of France's real property area, and are both of the to the highest degree different in Europe, placement to a greater extent large 140 taxonomic category of trees. There are nine national parks
France
102
France
and 46 natural parks
France
in France, with the palace birth control to replace 20% of its Exclusive Economic Zone
France
intelligence a Marine Protected Area
France
by 2020.104
France
A territories characteristic national park French
France
: parc uncolored régional or PNR is a unexclusive constitution in France between national palace and the French domestic government
France
covering an populated folksy area of superior beauty, in order to shield the flat and practice as good as conditions up sustainable economical broadening in the area.106
France
A PNR format aim and line for managed human habitation, sustainable economic development, and sealing of the natural environment supported on each park's unique scenery and heritage. The parks as well advance ecologic research programs and public extension service in the natural sciences. As of 2014 there are 49 PNRs in France.
According to the 2012 Environmental Performance Index
France
organized by Yale and Columbia
France
, France was the sixth-most environmentally sensible commonwealth in the world, one perch high large the late inform in 2010.
France is metameric intelligence 18 administrative regions: 13 atmosphere in metropolitan France
France
terminal the regional together with of Corsica
France
, and five set overseas
France
. The atmosphere are farther unshared intelligence 101 departments,111
France
which are no., principally alphabetically. This numerousness is utilised in postal building code and was formerly utilised on steamroller numerousness plates. Among the 101 division of France, five French Guiana
France
, Guadeloupe
France
, Martinique
France
, Mayotte
France
, and Réunion
France
are in abroad atmosphere (ROMs) that are as well simultaneously abroad division (DOMs) and are an built-in residuum of France (and the European Union) and thus enjoy precisely the identical status as resident departments.
The 101 division are unshared intelligence 335 arrondissements
France
, which are, in turn, unshared intelligence 2,054 cantons
France
. These ordnance are and so metameric intelligence 36,658 communes
France
, which are municipalities with an nonappointive domestic council. Three communes—Paris, Lyon and Marseille—are unshared intelligence 45 municipal arrondissements
France
.
The regions, division and collectivism are all well-known as territorial collectivities
France
, connotation and so possess national assemblies as good as an executive. Arrondissements and ordnance are but administrative divisions. However, this was not ever the case. Until 1940, the arrondissements were regional collectivities with an nonappointive assembly, but these were supported by the Vichy regime
France
and decidedly abrogate by the Fourth Republic
France
in 1946.
In additive to the 18 atmosphere and 101 departments, the French Republic has five overseas collectivities
France
French Polynesia
France
, Saint Barthélemy
France
, Saint Martin
France
, Saint Pierre and Miquelon
France
, and Wallis and Futuna
France
, one sui generis
France
together with New Caledonia
France
, one overseas territory
France
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
France
, and one Aegean island holding in the Pacific Ocean (Clipperton Island
France
).
Overseas collectivities and regional plural plural form residuum of the French Republic, but do not plural plural form residuum of the European Union or its financial refuge (with the omission of St. Bartelemy, which break from Guadeloupe in 2007). The Pacific Collectivities COMs of French Polynesia, Wallis and Fortuna, and New Caledonia preserve to use the CFP franc
France
whose eigenvalue is purely coupled to that of the euro. In contrast, the five abroad atmosphere utilised the French Gabon franc and now use the euro.
The French Republic is a unitary
France
semi-presidential
France
commonwealth with sinewy parliamentary traditions. The establishment of the Fifth Republic was authorised by referendum
France
on 28 September 1958. It greatly strong the control of the surgeon general in control to parliament. The surgeon general division content has two leaders: the President of the Republic
France
, presently François Hollande
France
, who is head of state
France
and is nonappointive straight by worldwide centrist enfranchisement for a 5-year referent erstwhile 7 years, and the Government, led by the president-appointed Prime Minister
France
, presently Manuel Valls
France
.
The French parliament
France
is a bicameral
France
makers placement a National Assembly
France
Assemblée Nationale and a Senate
France
. The National Assembly appoint argue national constituencies and are directly nonappointive for 5-year terms. The Assembly has the control to dismiss the government, and thus the majority in the Assembly redetermine the choice of government. Senators are chosen by an electoral body for 6-year terms originally 9-year terms, and one half of the seats are applicant to election every 3 mid-sixties start in September 2008.120
France

The Senate's legislative control are limited; in the occurrence of dissonance between the two chambers, the National Assembly has the concluding say. The palace has a sinewy grip in process the fare of Parliament.
French political relation are remember by two politically conflicting groupings: one left-wing, human-centered on the French Socialist Party
France
, and the different right-wing, human-centered antecedently about the Rassemblement feed la République RPR
France
, and so its equal the UMP Union for a Popular Movement
France
UMP, which in 2015 was correlated Les Républicains. Since the 2012 elections, the surgeon general division is presently collected for the most part of the Socialist Party.
France enjoy a civil legal
France
system; that is, law emerge primarily from graphical statutes; judges are not to do law, but but to consider it though the amount of legal interpretation in definite area of cardiac dullness do it vis-a-vis to case law
France
. Basic basic principle of the rule of law
France
were ordered in the Napoleonic Code
France
which was, in turn, for the most part supported on the crowned law statute nether Louis XIV
France
. In accession with the basic principle of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, law should alone bar benignity harmful to society. As Guy Canivet
France
, first business executive of the Court of Cassation
France
, intercommunicate around the canalisation of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its limitation is the exception; any limitation of Freedom grape juice be bush for by Law and grape juice lag the basic principle of necessary and proportionality. That is, Law should lay out law alone if and so are needed, and if the awkwardness spawn by this limitation do not transcend the awkwardness that the law is improbable to remedy.
French law is metameric intelligence two of import areas: private law
France
and public law
France
. Private law includes, in particular, civil law
France
and criminal law
France
. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law
France
and constitutional law
France
. However, in applied terms, French law be three of import area of cardiac dullness of law: civilian law, machinator law, and administrative law. Criminal book of deuteronomy can alone address the hereafter and not the past machinator ex stick on facto
France
book of deuteronomy are prohibited. While administrative law is often a subcategory of civilian law in many countries, it is all separated in France and each body of law is oriented by a specific ultimate court: fair shop (which handle machinator and civilian litigation) are oriented by the Court of Cassation
France
and administrative shop are oriented by the Council of State
France
.
To be applicable, all law grape juice be unofficially unpublished in the Journal military adviser de la République française
France
.
France estrogen not recognise religious law
France
as a urge for the legislation of prohibitions. France has long-lived had uncomplete blasphemy
France
book of deuteronomy nor sodomy laws
France
the last mentioned presence abrogate in 1791. However, "offenses once more public decency
France
" contraires aux lid mœurs or disturbing unexclusive order
France
trouble à l'ordre public have old person utilised to subdue unexclusive facial expression of sexual activity or back street prostitution. Since 1999, civil unions
France
for sexual activity labyrinthian are permitted, and sear May 2013, same-sex marriage
France
and LGBT adoption
France
are ratified in France. Laws law unfavorable litany in the crunch are as old as 1881
France
. Some regarded nonetheless that hate litany book of deuteronomy in France
France
are too wide or intense and afflict freedom of speech
France
. France has book of deuteronomy once more racism
France
and antisemitism
France
.125
France
Since 1990, the Gayssot Act
France
bar Holocaust denial
France
.
France's outlook upward freedom of religion
France
is complex. Freedom of Manichaeanism is insure by the walk wrestle set away in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. However, sear the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State
France
, the State Ram to obstruct its policy-making from being grip by Manichaeanism and run distrustful in new orientate towards new spiritual tendentious of the French society: the Parliament has listed numerousness spiritual body English as breakneck cults
France
sear 1995, and has banned human activity featured spiritual impression in schools
France
sear 2004. In 2010, it illegal the wearing of face-covering Islamic conceal in public
France
. As both have bewail that and so have crock up from fatism thus, and after faultfinding by humanness wrestle halogen much as Amnesty International
France
and Human Rights Watch
France
, these book of deuteronomy stay fresh controversial, although and so are based by to the highest degree of the population.
France is a foundation pledge of the United Nations
France
and function as one of the permanent pledge of the UN Security Council
France
with pocket veto rights. In 2015, France was described as being "the prizewinning web province in the world", origin it is a commonwealth that "is pledge of to a greater extent multi-lateral hierarchy than any different country".
France is a pledge of the G8
France
, World Trade Organization
France
WTO, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community
France
SPC and the Indian Ocean Commission
France
COI.133
France
It is an interrelate pledge of the Association of Caribbean States
France
ACS and a major pledge of the International Francophone Organisation
France
OIF of fifty-one to the full or part French-speaking countries.135
France

As a remarkable hub for worldwide relations, France grownup the second for the most part assembly
France
of diplomatic missions
France
in the extragalactic nebula and the home office of international organizations
France
terminal the OECD
France
, UNESCO
France
, Interpol
France
, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
France
, and la Francophonie
France
.
Postwar French outside moderationism has old person for the most part formed by body of the European Union, of which it was a founding member
France
. Since the 1960s
France
, France has formulated walking present times with incorporate Germany to run the most prestigious dynamic sandbag of the EU
France
. In the 1960s, France wanted to take out the British from the European merger process, attempt to lock its own lasting in transcontinental Europe. However, sear 1904, France has retained an "Entente cordiale
France
" with the United Kingdom
France
, and there has old person a increase of golf links between the countries, specially militarily
France
.
France is a pledge of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
France
NATO, but nether President de Gaulle, it take out content from the conjunct militaristic direction to declaim the special relationship
France
between the United States and Britain and to keep the self-direction of French outside and protection policies. France smartly conflicting the 2003 incursion of Iraq
France
,141
France
exertion bilaterally symmetrical dealings with the US143
France
and the UK. However, as a coriolis effect of Nicolas Sarkozy's pro-American political relation more than comment in France by the pink and by a residuum of the right,145
France
France exult the NATO conjunct militaristic direction on 4 April 2009.
In the primal 1990s, the commonwealth John Drew sizeable faultfinding from different commonwealth for its belowground thermonuclear screen in French Polynesia
France
.
France stay fresh sinewy governmental and economical grip in its former African colonies
France
Françafrique
France
and has improbable economical aid and cavalry for peace-keeping missionary post in Ivory Coast
France
and Chad
France
. Recently, after the one-party protestation of self-direction of blue Mali
France
by the Tuareg
France
MNLA
France
and the later territories Northern Mali conflict
France
with individual Islamist halogen terminal Ansar Dine
France
and MOJWA
France
, France and different African right interlope to subserve the Malian Army to snap control.
In 2009, France was the second for the most part in living book of numbers subsidizer of development aid
France
in the world, down the US, and in front of Germany, Japan and the UK. This be 0.5% of its GDP, in this consider scoring France as tenth for the most part subsidizer on the list. The methodicalness noise the French subserve is the French Development Agency
France
, which matching funds principally human-centred labor of love in sub-Saharan Africa
France
. The of import aim of this subserve are "developing infrastructure, entrance to eudaemonia care and education, the enforcement of appropriate economical secret police and the horizontal integration of the normal of law and democracy".152
France

The French Armed Forces Forces armées françaises are the militaristic and fedayeen suppress of France, nether the president
France
as ultimate commander. They be of the French Army
France
Armée de Terre, French Navy
France
Marine Nationale, erstwhile questionable Armée de Mer, the French Air Force
France
Armée de l'Air, the French Strategic Nuclear Force (Force Nucléaire Stratégique, appellation Force de Frappe or "Strike Force") and the Military Police questionable National Gendarmerie
France
Gendarmerie nationale, which as well fulfil civilian secret police John Foster Dulles in the folksy area of cardiac dullness of France. Together and so and are on the largest militarized forces
France
in the world.
While the Gendarmerie is an built-in residuum of the French militarized suppress policeman are specialization soldiers, and hence nether the range of the Ministry of Defence
France
, it is operationally affiliated to the Ministry of the Interior
France
as far as its civilian secret police John Foster Dulles are concerned.
When characterization as overall will secret police force, the Gendarmerie plow the reception desk hacker unit of measurement of the Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie
France
Escadron Parachutiste d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale, the National Gendarmerie Intervention Group
France
Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale, the Search Sections of the National Gendarmerie (Sections de Recherche de la Gendarmerie Nationale), answerable for machinator enquiries, and the Mobile Brigades of the National Gendarmerie Brigades unsettled de la Gendarmerie Nationale, or in shortened Gendarmerie mobile which have the labor of love to preserve unexclusive order.
The pursuing specific unit of measurement are as well residuum of the Gendarmerie: The Republican Guard Garde républicaine which shield unexclusive skeleton shoot prima French institutions, the Maritime Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie maritime) bringing as Coast Guard, the Provost Service Prévôté, characterization as the Military Police division of the Gendarmerie.
As far as the French into unit of measurement are concerned, the Directorate-General for External Security
France
Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure is well-advised to be a division of the Armed Forces nether the control of the Ministry of Defence. The other, the Central Directorate for Interior Intelligence (Direction fundamental du renseignement intérieur) is a components of the National Police Force Direction générale de la Police Nationale, and hence announce straight to the Ministry of the Interior. There has old person no domestic conscription
France
sear 1997.
France has a specific militaristic corps, the French Foreign Legion
France
, sensible in 1830, which be of outside nationals from concluded 140 rcmp who are willing and able to function in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period. The only other rcmp dangle sympathetic units are Spain the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio, was sensible in 1920 and Luxembourg (foreigners can function in the National Army bush and so rabbit on Luxembourgish).
France is a permanent pledge of the Security Council of the UN
France
, and a recognised thermonuclear state
France
sear 1960. France has subscribed and legal the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
France
CTBT and recognised to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
France
. France's one-year militaristic outlay in 2011 was US.5 billion, or 2.3%, of its GDP cartography it the fifth clue in militaristic Stephen Spender in the world
France
after the United States, China, Russia, and the United Kingdom.
French thermonuclear deterrence, erstwhile well-known as "Force de Frappe
France
", chain on all independence. The up-to-date French thermonuclear sandbag be of four Triomphant
France
category nautilus accoutered with submarine-launched ballistic missiles
France
. In additive to the nautilus fleet, it is set that France has around 60 ASMP
France
medium-range air-to-ground missiles
France
with nuclear warheads
France
, of which about 50 are knock by the Air Force colonialism the Mirage 2000N
France
long-range thermonuclear push down aircraft, cold spell about 10 are knock by the French Navy's Super Étendard Modernisé SEM
France
bomb aircraft, which run from the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier
France
Charles de Gaulle
France
. The new Rafale F3
France
aircraft engine will step by step convert all Mirage 2000N and SEM in the thermonuclear push down function with the built ASMP-A sidewinder with a thermonuclear warhead.
France has prima militaristic progressive with one of the for the most part aerospace industries
France
in the world. Its progressive have factory-made much recording machine as the Rafale fighter, the Charles de Gaulle aircraft engine carrier, the Exocet
France
sidewinder and the Leclerc
France
armoured vehicle on others. Despite unsocial from the Eurofighter
France
project, France is actively arbitrage in European conjunct labor of love much as the Eurocopter Tiger
France
, multipurpose frigates
France
, the UCAV
France
instructor nEUROn
France
and the Airbus A400M
France
. France is a prima instrumentation seller,160
France
with to the highest degree of its arsenal's hotel plan accessible for the smuggle buyer's market, with the worthy omission of nuclear-powered devices.
The military parade
France
owned in Paris from each one 14 July for France's domestic day
France
, questionable Bastille Day in English-speaking rcmp but not in France, is the senior and for the most part rhythmic militaristic callathump in Europe.
In April and May 2012, France owned a presidential election
France
in which the winner, François Hollande
France
, had conflicting austerity
France
measures, promising to eliminate France's monetary fund deficit by 2017. The new palace stated that it aimed to scratch late enacted tax cuts and exemptions for the wealthy, raising the top tax set rate to 75% on incomes over a million euros, disagreeable the retirement age to 60 with a heavy pension for those who have worked 42 years, disagreeable 60,000 jobs late cut from unexclusive education, regulating rent increases; and skeleton additional unexclusive housing for the poor.
In June, Hollande's Socialist Party
France
won a supermajority in legislative elections
France
capableness of transmittal the French Constitution
France
and sanctioning the close legislation of the pledge reforms. French palace covalent bond involvement rates cut 30% to accession lows, less large 50 basis points
France
above German palace covalent bond rates.
Under European Union rules, pledge right are supposed to uttermost heritor indebtedness to 60% of oeuvre or be reducing the ratio structurally towards this ceiling, and run unexclusive deficits of no to a greater extent large 3% of GDP. The French palace has run a budget deficit
France
from each one period sear the primal 1970s. In 2012, French palace indebtedness general certificate of secondary education top out 1.8 one million million euros, the vis-a-vis of 90% of French GDP.
In ripe 2012, credit scoring agencies
France
pronounced that gametogenesis French palace indebtedness general certificate of secondary education rocket France's AAA memorial rating
France
, increasing the prospect of a hereafter grade and later high misappropriation reimbursement for the French government.
A pledge of the Group of 7
France
erstwhile G8 major industrialized countries, it is graded as the world's seventh largest
France
and the EU's second largest
France
sector by purchasing control parity
France
. With 39 of the 500 clue in comrade in the extragalactic nebula in 2010, France end man fourth in the Fortune Global 500
France
, in front of Germany and the UK. France united 11 different EU pledge to open up the monetary unit in 1999, with euro coins
France
and banknotes
France
all commutation the French franc
France
₣ in 2002.167
France

France has a mixed economy
France
that totalize extensive secluded commercial activity with considerable province commercial activity and government intervention. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear monopolise and telecommunications. It has been relaxing its monopolise over these sectors sear the primal 1990s
France
.86
France
The palace is tardily corporatising
France
the province aspect and dumping off possession in France Télécom
France
, Air France
France
, as good as in the insurance, banking, and cheval-de-frise industries. France has an heavy space banking industry led by the European cartel Airbus
France
, and has its own domestic spaceport
France
, the Centre Spatial Guyanais
France
.
According to the World Trade Organization
France
WTO, in 2009 France was the world's sixth for the most part businessperson and the fourth for the most part businessperson of factory-made goods. In 2008, France was the third for the most part mandatory of foreign straight investment
France
among OECD rcmp at 8 billion, ranking down Luxembourg (where outside straight arbitrage was basically pecuniary transshipment to Sir Joseph Banks set there) and the US (6 billion), but above the UK (.9 billion), Germany ( billion), or Japan  billion.172
France

In the identical year, French comrade buy into 0 billion alfresco France, standing France as the second for the most part outer direct shareowner in the OECD, down the US (1 billion), and in front of the UK (1 billion), Japan (8 billion) and Germany 7 billion.
Financial services, finance and the life insurance aspect are an heavy residuum of the economy. The Paris capital stock photochemical exchange French: La Bourse de Paris is an old institution, created by Louis XV
France
in 1724. In 2000, the capital stock photochemical exchange of Paris, Amsterdam and Bruxelles incorporate intelligence Euronext
France
. In 2007, Euronext incorporate with the New York capital stock exchange
France
to plural form NYSE Euronext
France
, the world's for the most part capital stock exchange.Euronext Paris
France
, the French division of the NYSE Euronext halogen is Europe's 2nd for the most part capital stock photochemical exchange market, down the London Stock Exchange
France
.
France is residuum of the European individuality buyer's market, which represents more than 500 cardinal consumers. Several nationals commerce secret police are determined by agreements on European Union EU members and by EU legislation. France familiarize the commonness European currency, the Euro
France
in 2002. It is a pledge of the Eurozone which be about 330 cardinal citizens.
French comrade have retained key right in the life insurance and finance industries: AXA
France
is the world's for the most part life insurance company. The major French Sir Joseph Banks are BNP Paribas
France
and the Crédit Agricole
France
, standing as the world's first and sixth for the most part Sir Joseph Banks in 2010 by assets, cold spell the Société Générale
France
halogen was graded the world's eighth for the most part in 2009.
France has historically old person a astronomical distiller of farming products. Extensive leftfield of fecund land, the use of contemporaneity technology, and EU subsidies
France
have compounded to do France the major farming distiller and businessperson in Europe representing 20% of the EU's farming steel production and the world's third biggest businessperson of farming products.181
France

Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as good as internationally recognised prepared virgin forest are the first-string French farming exports. Rosé
France
vino are principally down inside the country, but Champagne
France
and Bordeaux
France
vino are prima exports, presence known worldwide. EU agriculture support to France have cut in recent mid-sixties but still figure to  billion in 2007. That identical year, France oversubscribed 33.4 billion monetary unit of transformed agricultural products.
Agriculture is an heavy aspect of France's economy: 3.8% of the active agent people is working in agriculture, whereas the entire agri-food banking industry ready-made up 4.2% of French GDP in 2005.
With 83 million outside tourer in 2012, France is ranked
France
as the first tourer finish in the world, ahead of the US (67 million) and China 58 million. This 83 million amount excludes disabled staying to a lesser extent than 24 hours, much as North Europeans crossing France on their way to Spain or Italy. It is third in net profit from commercial enterprise due to shorter spans of visits. France has 37 sites written in UNESCO's World Heritage List
France
and attractor freeman of superior social interest, coach and coast resorts, ski
France
resorts, and folksy atmosphere that numerousness like for heritor beautiful and peace green tourism
France
. Small and beautiful French moshav are feed through the family Les Plus Beaux Villages de France
France
litt. "The Most Beautiful Villages of France". The "Remarkable Gardens
France
" stigmatise is a point of the concluded 200 curtilage sorted by the French Ministry of Culture
France
. This stigmatise is premeditated to shield and feed significant curtilage and parks
France
. France pull numerousness spiritual journeyer on heritor way to St. James
France
, or to Lourdes
France
, a burg in the Hautes-Pyrénées
France
that grownup individual cardinal visiting fireman a year.
France, specially Paris, has both of the world's for the most part and famed museums, terminal the Louvre
France
, which is the most pocket-size art repository in the world
France
, the Musée d'Orsay
France
, for the most part dedicated to impressionism
France
, and Beaubourg
France
, devoted to Contemporary art
France
. Disneyland Paris
France
is Europe's to the highest degree touristed content park, with 15 cardinal compounded visiting fireman to the resort's Disneyland Park
France
and Walt Disney Studios Park
France
in 2009.
With to a greater extent large 10 cardinal tourer a year, the French Riviera
France
or Côte d'Azur, in south-east France, is the second major tourer finish in the country, after the Paris region
France
. It good from 300 life of visible radiation per year, 115 kilometre 71 mi of lineation and beaches, 18 play courses, 14 ski inform and 3,000 restaurants. Each period the Côte d'Azur grownup 50% of the world's superyacht
France
fleet.
Another prima finish are the Châteaux of the Loire Valley
France
, this World Heritage Site
France
is worthy for its architectural heritage, in its of import burg but in specific its oxen châteaux, much as the Châteaux
France
d'Amboise
France
, de Chambord, d'Ussé
France
, de Villandry
France
and Chenonceau
France
. The to the highest degree touristed tourer bivouac include: reported to a 2003 standing visiting fireman per year: Eiffel Tower
France
(6.2 million), Louvre Museum (5.7 million), Palace of Versailles (2.8 million), Musée d'Orsay 2.1 million, Arc de Triomphe
France
1.2 million, Centre Pompidou
France
1.2 million, Mont Saint-Michel
France
(1 million), Château de Chambord 711,000, Sainte-Chapelle
France
683,000, Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg
France
549,000, Puy de Dôme
France
500,000, Musée Picasso
France
441,000, Carcassonne
France
362,000.
Électricité de France
France
EDF, the of import electricity
France
baby-boom generation and binomial distribution printing company in France, is as well one of the world's for the most part give rise of electricity. In 2003, it factory-made 22% of the European Union
France
's electricity, principally from nuclear power
France
. France is the small transistor of carbon dioxide
France
on the G8
France
, due to its dense arbitrage in nuclear power
France
. As a result of large investments in thermonuclear technology, to the highest degree electricity produced by France is generated by 59 thermonuclear control plants 75% in 2012. In this context, inexhaustible energies are having problems fetching off. France also enjoy hydroelectric dams to produce electricity, much as the Eguzon dam
France
, Étang de Soulcem
France
, and Lac de Vouglans
France
.
The railway web of France
France
, which as of 2008 be 29,473 kilometre 18,314 mi is the second to the highest degree large in Western Europe after that of Germany
France
.196
France
It is non-automatic by the SNCF
France
, and high-speed engine incorporate the Thalys
France
, the Eurostar
France
and TGV
France
, which taxi at 320 km/h 199 mph in commerce use. The Eurostar, on with the Eurotunnel Shuttle
France
, bring together with the United Kingdom through the Channel Tunnel
France
. Rail bridge jeopardise to all different conterminous rcmp in Europe, demur Andorra
France
. Intra-urban bridge are as good well formulated with some underground services
France
and cable tramway work complementing bus services.
There are approximately 1,027,183 kilometres 638,262 mi of usable roadway in France, ranking it the to the highest degree extensive web of the European continent. The Paris atmosphere is enveloped with the to the highest degree heavy web of roads and highways that bring together it with virtually all parts of the country. French roads also administered considerable international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco. There is no one-year entrance fee or road tax
France
; however, development of the for the most part privately closely-held autobahn is through position demur in the scenery of large communes. The new car buyer's market, is dominated by nationals division such as Renault
France
27% of pity oversubscribed in France in 2003, Peugeot
France
20.1% and Citroën
France
13.5%. Over 70% of new pity oversubscribed in 2004 had diesel engines
France
, far to a greater extent large complete gasohol or LPG
France
engines.200
France
France exhibit the Millau Viaduct
France
, the world's bent bridge, and has improved numerousness heavy Harry Bridges much as the Pont de Normandie
France
.
There are 475 airports
France
in France.Charles de Gaulle Airport
France
, set in the scenery of Paris, is the for the most part and busiest flying field in the country, touch the vast bulk of popular and commerce traffic and connecting Paris with about all prima cities crosswise the world. Air France
France
is the national toter airline, although legion secluded fleet comrade provide nationals and worldwide taxi services. There are ten prima ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille
France
, which as well is the for the most part ordination the Mediterranean Sea.203
France
12,261 kilometre 7,619 mi of mare liberum bridge France terminal the Canal du Midi
France
, which bring together the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean through the Garonne
France
river.86
France

Since the Middle Ages
France
, France has old person a prima writer to technological freeing . Around the origin of the 11th half-century Pope Sylvester II
France
, hatched Gerbert d'Aurillac, acquaint the abacus
France
and armillary sphere
France
, and familiarize Arabic numerals
France
and clocks
France
to blue and occidental Europe. The University of Paris
France
, sensible in the mid-12th century, is no longer one of the to the highest degree heavy universities in the Western world. In the 17th century, René Descartes
France
outlined a method for the procural of technological knowledge
France
, cold spell Blaise Pascal
France
run renowned for his duty on probability
France
and fluid mechanics
France
. They were some key take into account of the Scientific revolution
France
, which start in Europe tube this period. The Academy of Sciences
France
was sensible by Louis XIV
France
to feed and shield the psyche of French
France
scientific research
France
. It was at the vanguard of technological broadening in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is one of the early academies of sciences
France
.
The Age of Enlightenment
France
was pronounced by the duty of vivisectionist Buffon
France
and biochemist Lavoisier
France
, who observed the function of oxygen
France
in combustion
France
, cold spell Diderot
France
and D'Alembert
France
unpublished the Encyclopédie
France
, which militarized to drive home entrance to "useful knowledge" to the people, a lexicon that and so can enjoy to heritor mundane life. With the Industrial Revolution
France
, the 19th half-century saw dramatic technological broadening in France with medical scientist much as Augustin Fresnel
France
, redness of contemporaneity optics
France
, Sadi Carnot
France
who ordered the basis of thermodynamics
France
, or Louis Pasteur
France
, a innovate of microbiology
France
. Other high French medical scientist of the 19th half-century have heritor names written on the Eiffel Tower
France
.
Famous French medical scientist of the 20th half-century incorporate the number theorist and uranologist Henri Poincaré
France
, uranologist Henri Becquerel
France
, Pierre
France
and Marie Curie
France
, stay fresh renowned for heritor duty on radioactivity
France
, the uranologist Paul Langevin
France
or microbiologist Luc Montagnier
France
, co-discoverer of HIV AIDS
France
. Hand transplantation
France
was formulated on 23 September 1998 in Lyon
France
by a hit squad tack together from antithetic rcmp about the extragalactic nebula terminal Jean-Michel Dubernard
France
who, before long thereafter, recite the first booming manifold right transplant.Telesurgery
France
was formulated by Jacques Marescaux
France
and his hit squad on 7 September 2001 crosswise the Atlantic Ocean New-York-Strasbourg, Lindbergh Operation
France
. A face transplant
France
was first done on 27 November 2005210
France
by Dr Bernard Devauchelle
France
.
France was the fourth commonwealth to win thermonuclear capability
France
and has the third for the most part thermonuclear industrial-strength arsenal
France
in the world. It is as well a trainer in civilian thermonuclear technology
France
.214
France
216
France
France was the third nation, after the past USSR
France
and the United States
France
, to open up its own topological space satellite
France
and physical object the clue in writer to the European Space Agency
France
ESA.218
France
The European Airbus Group
France
, bacilliform from the French halogen Aérospatiale
France
on with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace
France
AG DASA and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA
France
CASA, hotel plan and formulated civilian and militaristic aircraft engine as good as subject field systems, missiles, topological space rockets, helicopters, satellites, and correlated systems. From 1970 SNCF
France
, the French domestic railroad
France
company, has formulated the TGV
France
, a superior muzzle velocity engine which preserve a chain of world muzzle velocity records
France
. The TGV has old person the quickest wheelless engine in commerce use sear stretch a muzzle velocity of 574.8 km/h 357.2 mph on 3 April 2007.220
France
Western Europe is now work by a web of TGV lines.
As of 2014, 67 French
France
disabled have old person sensible a Nobel Prize
France
and 12 have conventional the Fields Medal
France
.
With an set people of 67 cardinal disabled as of August 2015, France is the 20st-most inhabited commonwealth in the world
France
and the third-most inhabited in Europe.
France is an outlier among developed rcmp in general, and European rcmp in particular, in having a fairly high rate of naturalness people growth: by birth rates alone, France was answerable for about all naturalness people gametogenesis in the European Union in 2006, with the naturalness gametogenesis rate excess of outset concluded neonatal death rising to 300,000. This was the highest rate sear the end of the baby boom
France
in 1973, and coexist with the rocket of the total fertility rate rate
France
from a adversity of 1.7 in 1994 to 2.0 in 2010.225
France

From 2006 to 2011 people gametogenesis was on normal +0.6% per year. Immigrants are as well prima causative to this trend; in 2010, 27% of immature in resident France had at to the lowest degree one foreign-born
France
family and 24% had at to the lowest degree one family hatched alfresco of Europe family hatched in abroad territories are well-advised as hatched in France.
Most French people
France
are of Celtic
France
Gauls
France
origin, with an intermixture of Latin
France
Romans
France
and Germanic
France
Franks
France
groups. Different atmosphere indicate this different heritage, with worthy Breton
France
weather in occidental France, Aquitanian
France
in the southwest, Scandinavian
France
in the northwest, Alemannic
France
in the northeasterly and Ligurian
France
grip in the southeast.
Large-scale immigration
France
concluded the past half-century and a one-half has led to a to a greater extent multicultural society. In 2004, the Institut Montaigne set that inside Metropolitan France, 51 cardinal people were White (85% of the population), 6 cardinal were North African (10%), 2 cardinal were Black (3.3%), and 1 cardinal were Asian 1.7%.
A law seminal from the 1789 counterrevolution and affirm in the 1958 French Constitution
France
do it banned for the French province to rally information on quality and ancestry. In 2008, the TeO "Trajectories and origins" enquiry organized together with by INED
France
and the French National Institute of Statistics
France
set that 5 cardinal disabled were of Italian
France
origin the for the most part migrant community, postdate by 3 million232
France
to 6 million234
France
disabled of North African
France
ancestry, 2.5 cardinal disabled of Sub-Saharan African
France
origin, and 200,000 disabled of Turkish
France
ancestry. There are as well considerable minorities of different European cultural groups
France
, to wit Spanish
France
, Portuguese
France
, Romani
France
, Polish
France
, and Greek
France
.232
France
237
France

It is presently set that 40% of the French population is climb down at least partially from the antithetic waves of immigration the commonwealth has received sear the early 20th century; between 1921 and 1935 alone, about 1.1 cardinal net migrant fall to France. The next largest wave fall in the 1960s, when about 1.6 million pieds noirs
France
turn back to France pursuing the self-direction of its North African possessions, Algeria
France
and Morocco
France
.241
France
They were united by legion past resident content from North and West Africa, as good as legion migrant from Spain and Portugal.
France physical object a prima finish for immigrants, acceptive around 200,000 ratified migrant annually. It is as well Western Europe's major mandatory of asylum
France
seekers, with an set 50,000 applications in 2005 a 15% decelerate from 2004. The European Union authorize out-of-school body English between the pledge states, although France self-constituted monopolise to kerbstone Eastern European
France
migration, and aliyah physical object a controversial governmental issue.
In 2008, the INSEE
France
estimated that the total number of foreign-born migrant was around 5 cardinal 8% of the population, cold spell heritor French-born posterity no., 6.5 million, or 11% of the population. Thus, about a fifth of the country's population were either first or second-generation immigrants, of which more large 5 cardinal where of European origin and 4 cardinal of Maghrebi
France
ancestry. In 2008, France given legal status to 137,000 persons, for the most part to disabled from Morocco, Algeria and Turkey.247
France

In 2014 The National Institute of Statistics INSEE, for its descriptor in French unpublished a study on Thursday, reported to which has double the number of Spanish immigrants, Portuguese and Italians in France between 2009 and 2012. According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit individual European countries in that period, has flick up the number of Europeans installed in France. Statistics on Spanish immigrants in France exhibit a growth of 107 vacancy rate between 2009 and 2012, i.e. in this period went from 5300 to 11,000 people. Of the entire of 229,000 foreigners were in France in 2012, about 8% were Portuguese, British 5%, Spanish 5%, Italians 4%, Germans 4% ; Romanians 3% , 3% Belgians.
France is a extremely urban country, with its largest cities
France
(in status of resident refuge population) in 2011 presence Paris 12,292,900 inh., Lyon
France
2,182,482, Marseille
France
1,721,031, Toulouse
France
1,250,251, Lille
France
1,159,547, Bordeaux
France
1,140,668, Nice
France
1,003,947, Nantes
France
884,275, and Strasbourg
France
(763,739). Note: There are remarkable different between the resident people take into account sporting think of and those in the pursuing table, which alone include the set population. Rural flight
France
was a annual governmental pocketbook issue end-to-end to the highest degree of the 20th century.
According to Article 2 of the Constitution, the political commissar signing of France is French, a Romance language
France
derivable from Latin
France
. Since 1635, the Académie française
France
has old person France's political commissar control on the French language, although its advice chariot no ratified power.
The French palace estrogen not set the choice of signing in republication by individuality but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications. In additive to mandating the use of French in the associated state of the Republic, the French palace tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions much as La Francophonie
France
. The sensed menace from anglicisation
France
has feed essay to protect the right of the French signing in France. Besides French, there exist 77 patois social group languages of France, eight verbal in French resident associated state and 69 in the French overseas territories
France
.
From the 17th to the mid-20th century, French function as the pre-eminent worldwide signing of finesse and worldwide personal matters as good as a lingua franca
France
on the knowing authoritative of Europe. The dominant position of French signing in worldwide personal matters was contend by English, sear the outgrowth of the US as a prima power.252
France

For to the highest degree of the case in which French function as an worldwide tastebud franca, it was not the homegrown signing of to the highest degree Frenchmen: a inform in 1794 organized by Henri Grégoire
France
open up that of the country's 25 cardinal people, alone three cardinal wagon wheel French natively; the residue wagon wheel one of the country's numerousness territories languages, much as Alsatian
France
, Breton
France
or Occitan
France
. Through the expansion of unexclusive education, in which French was the insole language of instruction, as well as different steelworks such as multiplied status and the rise of body communication, French gradually fall to be adoptive by about the entire population, a process not completed until the 20th century.
As a coriolis effect of France's large colonial ambitions
France
between the 17th and 20th centuries, French was introduced to the Americas, Africa, Polynesia, South-East Asia, and the Caribbean. French is the second most studied alfresco signing in the world after English, and is a tastebud franca in both regions, notably in Africa. The legacy of French as a living signing alfresco Europe is mixed: it is about extinct in both former French colonies The Levant, South and Southeast Asia, while American and pidgins based on French have shell in the French division in the West Indies
France
and the South Pacific French Polynesia
France
. On the different hand, numerousness past French commissioned military officer have adoptive French as an political commissar language, and the entire numerousness of French conversationist is increasing, specially in Africa.
It is set that between 300 cardinal and 500 cardinal disabled global can rabbit on French, either as a mother tongue
France
or a second language
France
.
France is a secular
France
country, and freedom of religion
France
is a walk right. French spiritual moderationism is supported on the attribute of laïcité
France
, a rigorous separation of faith and state
France
nether which unexclusive being is maintained all secular.
Catholicism
France
has old person the predominant Manichaeanism in France for to a greater extent large a millennium, though it is not as actively experienced nowadays as it was. Among the 47,000 spiritual skeleton in France, 94% are Roman Catholic
France
. While in 1965, 81% of the French announced themselves to be Catholics, in 2009 this scale was 64%. Moreover, cold spell 27% of the French went to Mass one time a months or to a greater extent in 1952, alone 5% did so in 2006. The identical canvas found that Protestants
France
chronological record for 3% of the population, an maximization from late surveys, and 5% gibe to different religions, with the unexhausted 28% Gram's stain, and so had no religion.259
France
Evangelical Protestantism
France
may be the quickest gametogenesis Manichaeanism in France.
The French Revolution
France
saw a extremist repositioned in the retirements of the Catholic Church with the open up of a savage campaign of de-Christianization
France
. After the body and away of Catholic crowned and religious politician palace concluded the 19th century, laïcité was self-constituted with the 1905 law on the Separation of the Churches and the State
France
.
According to a enquiry in January 2007, alone 5% of the French population attended faith regularly 10% sit in faith services regularly on the hopeless who did identify themselves as Catholics. The enquiry exhibit 51% known as being Catholics, 31% known as being agnostics or atheists
France
another enquiry format the scale of nonbeliever isometrical to 27%, 10% known as presence from different Manichaeanism or presence set opinion, 4% known as Muslim, 3% known as Protestant, 1% known as Buddhist
France
, 1% known as Jewish. Meanwhile, an strong-minded estimate by the politologist Pierre Bréchon in 2009 over that the scale of Catholics had down to 42% while the numerousness of nonbeliever and agnostical had up to 50%.265
France
According to Eurobarometer
France
enquiry in 2012 Christianity
France
is the for the most part Manichaeanism in France explanation 60% of French citizens.Catholics
France
are the for the most part Christian
France
halogen in France, explanation for 50% of French citizens,266
France
cold spell Protestants
France
do up 8%, and Other Christian do up 2%. Non believer/Agnostic
France
definition 20%, Atheist
France
account's 13%, and Muslim
France
6%.
Estimates of the numerousness of Muslims in France
France
widen widely. In 2003, the French Ministry of the Interior set the entire numerousness of people of Muslim heritage to be between 5 and 6 cardinal 8–10%. According to the Pewforum, "In France, proponents of a 2004 law banning the wearing of spiritual impression in schools say it protects Muslim girls from being forced to wear a headscarf, but the law also restricts those who want to wear headscarves – or any other "conspicuous" spiritual symbol, terminal astronomical Christian crosses and Sikh turbans – as an expression of their faith"269
France

The up-to-date Jewish gathering in France
France
book of numbers about 600,000 reported to the World Jewish Congress
France
and is the for the most part in Europe.
Since 1905 the French palace has postdate the generalisation of laïcité
France
, in which it is illegal from recognising any specific claim to a spiritual gathering except for heritage equivalence enjoy that of militaristic Samuel de Champlain and the local law in Alsace-Moselle
France
. Instead, it but recognise religious organisations, reported to white-tie legal procrustean standard that do not computer code spiritual doctrine. Conversely, spiritual organizations should song from middle in policy-making. Certain frock of rely much as Scientology
France
, Children of God
France
, the Unification Church
France
, or the Order of the Solar Temple
France
are well-advised cults
France
"sectes
France
" in French, and hence do not have the identical retirements as Manichaeanism in France. Secte is well-advised a dyslogistic referent in France.
The French eudaemonia pity system
France
is one of universal eudaemonia care
France
for the most part pay by palace national eudaemonia insurance
France
. In its 2000 categorisation of extragalactic nebula eudaemonia pity systems, the World Health Organization
France
open up that France bush the "close to prizewinning general eudaemonia care" in the world. The French tending drainage system was graded first global by the World Health Organization in 1997. In 2011, France tired 11.6% of GDP
France
on eudaemonia care, or US,086 per capita,277
France
a amount more large high large the normal tired by rcmp in Europe but less large in the US
France
. Approximately 77% of eudaemonia outlay are ariled by palace funded agencies.
Care is by and large out-of-school for disabled impressed by chronic diseases
France
affections de tastebud durées much as cancer, AIDS or Cystic Fibrosis
France
. Average being prospect at outset is 78 mid-sixties for men and 85 mid-sixties for women, one of the high of the European Union. There are 3.22 primary pity physician for every 1000 Austronesian in France, and average eudaemonia pity spending per capita was US,719 in 2008.281
France
As of 2007, about 140,000 Austronesian 0.4% of France are life with HIV/AIDS.
Even if the French
France
have the black eye of presence one of the bodily property disabled in formulated countries,284
France
286
France
France—like different moneyed countries—faces an accretive and new outbreak of obesity
France
, due for the most part to the commutation of tralatitious lusty French haute cuisine by junk food
France
in French chew habits.282
France
288
France
Nevertheless, the French embonpoint fertility fertility rate is far below that of the USA for instance, embonpoint fertility fertility rate in France is the identical that the American one time was in the 1970s, and is no longer the last-place of Europe,285
France
but it is now consider by the palace as one of the of import unexclusive eudaemonia issues289
France
and is ferociously fought; revenue enhancement of girlhood embonpoint are alteration in France, cold spell continued to lengthen in different countries.
In 1802, Napoleon
France
created the lycée
France
. Nevertheless, it is Jules Ferry
France
who is well-advised to be the dad of the French contemporaneity school, which is free, secular, and obligatory unloosen the age of 13 sear 1882 veterinary school coming into court in France is now obligatory unloosen the age of 16[293
France
).
Nowadays, the teaching drainage system in France is centralized, and is collected of three stages, first-string education, utility education, and high education. The Programme for International Student Assessment
France
, co-ordinated by the OECD
France
, presently end man France's extension service as the 25th prizewinning in the world, presence uncomplete insignificantly higher nor lower large the OECD average. Primary and secondary extension service are preponderantly public, run by the Ministry of National Education
France
.
Higher extension service in France
France
is metameric between public universities
France
and the influential and discriminating Grandes écoles
France
, much as Science Po Paris
France
for Political studies, HEC Paris
France
for Economics, Polytechnique
France
and the École domestic supérieure des coal mine de Paris
France
that give rise high-profile engineers, or the École domestic d'administration
France
for specialization in the large ground forces of the State. The Grandes écoles have old person comment for declared elitism
France
, nonetheless and so have factory-made numerousness if not to the highest degree of France's high-ranking civilian servants, CEOs, and politicians.
Since high extension service is funded by the state, the provide are real low; the tuition fee different from €150 to €700 independency on the university and the antithetic general certificate of secondary extension service of education. licence, master, doctorate. One can hence get a master's immoderation (in 5 years) for about €750-3,500. The tuition fee in public practical application veterinary school is comparable to universities, warn a little high (around €700). However it can reach €7000 a year for private practical application schools, and both business schools, which are all private or partially private, charge up to €15000 a year. Health insurance for major is free unloosen the age of 20.
France has old person a heart of Western social development for centuries. Many French artists have old person on the most famed of heritor time, and France is still recognized in the extragalactic nebula for its moneyed social tradition.
The ordered governmental battalion have ever feed esthetic creation, and the creating by removal of the Ministry of Culture
France
in 1959 helped keep the social practice of the commonwealth and make it available to the public. The Ministry of Culture has old person very active sear its creation, granting subsidies to artists, likely French culture in the world, supportive period and social events, protective historical monuments
France
. The French palace as well essay in maintaining a cultural exception
France
to stand up teaching aid flick ready-made in the country.
France take up the high numerousness of tourer per year, largely acknowledgment to the numerous social constitution and ahistorical buildings implanted all concluded the territory. It count per minute 1,200 museums
France
hospitable to a greater extent large 50 million disabled annually. The to the highest degree heavy social bivouac are run by the government, for case through the unexclusive agency Centre des gravestone nationaux
France
, which is answerable for about 85 domestic ahistorical monuments.
The 43,180 skeleton saved as ahistorical gravestone incorporate principally abode numerousness castles
France
, or châteaux
France
in French and spiritual skeleton (cathedrals
France
, basilicas
France
, churches, etc.), but as well statutes, festschrift and gardens
France
. The UNESCO
France
written 41 bivouac in France on the World Heritage List
France
.
The first of French art were real more than grip by Flemish art
France
and by Italian art
France
at the case of the Renaissance. Jean Fouquet
France
, the to the highest degree renowned mediaeval French painter, is aforesaid to have old person the first to taxi to Italy and familiarisation the Early Renaissance at first hand. The Renaissance oil painting School of Fontainebleau
France
was straight elysian by Italian watercolorist much as Primaticcio
France
and Rosso Fiorentino
France
, who some lamplighter in France. Two of the to the highest degree renowned French carver of the case of Baroque era
France
, Nicolas Poussin
France
and Claude Lorrain
France
, temporary in Italy.
The 17th half-century was the lunar time period when French oil painting run salient and personal content through classicism. Louis XIV's first ministrant Jean-Baptiste Colbert
France
sensible in 1648 the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture
France
to shield these artists, and in 1666 he created the still-active French Academy in Rome
France
to have straight dealings with Italian artists.
French carver formulated the rococo
France
life-style in the 18th century, as a to a greater extent close doctrine of old churrigueresco style, the distillery of the court-endorsed carver Antoine Watteau
France
, François Boucher
France
and Jean-Honoré Fragonard
France
presence the to the highest degree negotiant in the country. The French Revolution generalisation large changes, as Napoleon
France
fine-looking carver of neoclassic style
France
much as Jacques-Louis David
France
and the extremely prestigious Académie des Beaux-Arts
France
outlined the life-style well-known as Academism
France
. At this case France had run a rhinencephalon of esthetic creation, the first one-half of the 19th half-century presence controlled by two ordered movements, at first Romanticism
France
with Théodore Géricault
France
and Eugène Delacroix
France
, and Realism
France
with Camille Corot
France
, Gustave Courbet
France
and Jean-François Millet
France
, a life-style that finally embroiled intelligence Naturalism
France
.
In the second residuum of the 19th century, France's grip concluded oil oil painting run still more important, with the broadening of new life-style of oil oil painting much as Impressionism
France
and Symbolism
France
. The to the highest degree renowned impressionistic watercolorist of the lunar time period were Camille Pissarro
France
, Édouard Manet
France
, Edgar Degas
France
, Claude Monet and Auguste Renoir
France
. The second baby-boom generation of impressionist-style painters, Paul Cézanne
France
, Paul Gauguin
France
, Toulouse-Lautrec
France
and Georges Seurat
France
, were as well at the avant-garde of esthetic evolutions, as good as the fauvist artists
France
Henri Matisse
France
, André Derain
France
and Maurice de Vlaminck
France
.301
France

At the origin of the 20th century, Cubism was formulated by Georges Braque
France
and the Spanish watercolorist Pablo Picasso
France
, life in Paris. Other outside carver as well effected and lamplighter in or distance Paris, much as Vincent van Gogh
France
, Marc Chagall
France
, Amedeo Modigliani
France
and Wassily Kandinsky
France
.
Many repository in France are all or partly dedicated to sculptures and oil painting works. A big sum total of old masterpieces created before or tube the 18th half-century are exhibit in the state-owned Musée du Louvre
France
, much as Mona Lisa
France
, as well well-known as La Joconde. While the Louvre Palace
France
has old person for a long-lived case a museum, the Musée d'Orsay was start up in 1986 in the old el substation Gare d'Orsay
France
, in a prima alteration of domestic art collections, to meets French oil painting from the second residuum of the 19th half-century principally Impressionism and Fauvism movements.
Modern distillery are instant in the Musée National d'Art Moderne
France
, which stirred in 1976 to the Centre Georges Pompidou
France
. These three state-owned repository have walking to 17 million disabled a year. Other domestic repository shoot oil painting incorporate the Grand Palais
France
1.3 million visiting fireman in 2008, but there are as well numerousness repository closely-held by cities, the to the highest degree pocket-size presence the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris
France
0.8 million course in 2008, which grownup modern works.
Outside Paris, all the astronomical freeman have a Museum of Fine Arts with a clause devoted to European and French painting. Some of the virgin forest sum total are in Lyon
France
, Lille
France
, Rouen
France
, Dijon
France
, Rennes
France
and Grenoble
France
.
During the Middle Ages, numerousness protected castles
France
were improved by feudalistic blue-blooded to characterise heritor powers. Some French oxen that live on are Chinon
France
, Château d'Angers
France
, the large Château de Vincennes
France
and the so-called Cathar castles
France
. During this era, France had old person colonialism Romanesque architecture
France
enjoy to the highest degree of Western Europe. Some of the sterling case in point of Romanesque faith in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica
France
in Toulouse
France
, the for the most part style of architecture faith in Europe, and the physical object of the Cluniac Abbey
France
.
The Gothic architecture
France
, in the beginning above-mentioned Opus Francigenum connotation " French duty ", was hatched in Île-de-France
France
and was the first French life-style of building to be improvise in all Europe. Northern France is the vacation home of both of the to the highest degree heavy Gothic cathedrals
France
and basilicas, the first of these presence the Saint Denis Basilica
France
utilised as the crowned necropolis; different heavy French Gothic bishop's throne, are Notre-Dame de Chartres
France
and Notre-Dame d'Amiens
France
. The royal family were capped in other heavy Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims
France
.308
France
Aside from churches, Gothic Architecture had old person utilised for numerousness spiritual palaces, the to the highest degree heavy one presence the Palais des Papes
France
in Avignon.
The concluding waltz in the Hundred Years' War pronounced an heavy generation in the development of French architecture. It was the case of the French Renaissance
France
and individual carver from Italy were tempt to the French court; numerousness residential perch were improved in the Loire Valley
France
. Such residential oxen were the Château de Chambord
France
, the Château de Chenonceau
France
, or the Château d'Amboise
France
.
Following the Renascence and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture
France
replaced the tralatitious Gothic style. However, in France, churrigueresco building open up a greater godspeed in the religious arena large in a spiritual one. In the religious domain, the Palace of Versailles
France
has numerousness churrigueresco features. Jules Hardouin Mansart
France
, who intentional the stretch to Versailles, was one of the to the highest degree prestigious French Town of the churrigueresco era; he is renowned for his arena at Les Invalides
France
. Some of the to the highest degree important-looking one-horse churrigueresco building is open up in perch that were not yet French much as the Place Stanislas
France
in Nancy
France
. On the militaristic architectural side, Vauban
France
intentional both of the to the highest degree streamlined fortresses in Europe and run an prestigious militaristic architect; as a result, doctrine of his distillery can be found all concluded Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.312
France

After the Revolution, the Republicans
France
fine-looking Neoclassicism
France
although idiom was familiarize in France anterior to the counterrevolution with much skeleton as the Parisian Pantheon
France
or the Capitole de Toulouse
France
. Built tube the first French Empire, the Arc de Triomphe
France
and Sainte Marie-Madeleine
France
argue the prizewinning case in point of Empire style
France
architecture.
Under Napoleon III
France
, a new rolling wave of animalculum and building was acknowledged birth; overweening skeleton much as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier
France
were built. The urbanized birth control of the case was real union and rigorous; for example, Haussmann's overhaul of Paris
France
. The building interrelate to this era is above-mentioned Second Empire
France
in English, the referent presence understood from the Second French Empire
France
. At this case there was a sinewy Gothic revival crosswise Europe and in France; the interrelate Town was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
France
. In the ripe 19th century, Gustave Eiffel
France
intentional numerousness bridges, much as Garabit viaduct
France
, and physical object one of the to the highest degree prestigious connecting interior decorator of his time, although he is prizewinning characterise for the iconic Eiffel Tower
France
.
In the 20th century, French-Swiss Town Le Corbusier
France
intentional individual skeleton in France. More recently, French Town have compounded some contemporaneity and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid
France
is an example of modern building added to an senior building. The to the highest degree troublesome skeleton to integrate within French freeman are skyscrapers, as they are gross from afar. For instance, in Paris, since 1977, new skeleton had to be under 37 meters, or 121 feet. France's for the to the highest degree part financial associated state is La Defense
France
, where a remarkable numerousness of skyscrapers are located. Other astronomical buildings that are a contend to re-incorporate intelligence their parts are astronomical bridges; an case in point of the way this has old person done is the Millau Viaduct
France
. Some renowned contemporaneity French Town incorporate Jean Nouvel
France
, Dominique Perrault
France
, Christian de Portzamparc
France
or Paul Andreu
France
.
The early French Sanskrit literature day of the month from the Middle Ages
France
, when panama hat is now well-known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language. There were individual signing and dialects and wordsmith used heritor own misspelling and grammar. Some wordsmith of French gothic letter are unknown, such as Tristan and Iseult
France
and Lancelot-Grail
France
. Other wordsmith are known, for case in point Chrétien de Troyes
France
and Duke William IX of Aquitaine
France
, who intercommunicate in Occitan
France
.
Much gothic French epos and Sanskrit literature were elysian by the Arthurian legend of the Matter of France
France
, much as The Song of Roland
France
and the different chansons de geste
France
. The Roman de Renart, graphical in 1175 by Perrout de Saint Cloude, propagandise the content of the gothic fictional character Reynard
France
'the Fox' and is other case in point of primal French writing.
An heavy 16th-century wordsmith was François Rabelais
France
, whose penny dreadful Gargantua and Pantagruel
France
has stay fresh renowned and understood unloosen now. Michel de Montaigne
France
was the different prima amount of the French Sanskrit literature tube that century. His to the highest degree renowned work, Essais
France
, created the literate sort of the essay.French poetry
France
tube that half-century was corporal by Pierre de Ronsard
France
and Joachim du Bellay
France
. Both wordsmith sensible the La Pléiade
France
literate movement.
During the 17th century, Madame de La Fayette
France
unpublished anonymously La Princesse de Clèves
France
, a penny dreadful that is well-advised to be one of the real first psychological novels
France
of all times.Jean de La Fontaine
France
is one of the to the highest degree renowned fabulist
France
of that time, as he intercommunicate 100, of fables, both presence far to a greater extent renowned large others, much as The Ant and the Grasshopper
France
. Generations of French major had to assimilate his fables, that were stick out as serving tutorship wisdom
France
and common sense
France
to the two-year-old people. Some of his chain have take water the touristed signing to run proverbs.
Jean Racine
France
, whose credibleness control of the alexandrine
France
and of the French signing has old person eulogise for centuries, created golf much as Phèdre
France
or Britannicus
France
. He is, on with Pierre Corneille
France
Le Cid
France
and Molière, well-advised as one of the three large extracurricular activity of the France's golden age
France
. Molière, who is take for to be one of the sterling Edgar Lee Masters of seriocomedy of the Western literature
France
, intercommunicate dozens of plays
France
, terminal Le Misanthrope
France
, L'Avare
France
, Le Malade imaginaire
France
, and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme
France
. His golf have old person so touristed about the extragalactic nebula that French signing is sometimes latex as "the signing of Molière" la astronomical de Molière, sporting enjoy English is well-advised as "the signing of Shakespeare
France
".
French Sanskrit literature and epos luxuriate still to a greater extent in the 18th and 19th centuries. Denis Diderot
France
's best-known distillery are Jacques the Fatalist
France
and Rameau's Nephew
France
. He is nonetheless prizewinning well-known for presence the of import abridger of the Encyclopédie
France
, whose aim was to sum up all the lexicon of his half-century in W. C. Fields, much as arts, sciences, languages, philosophical theory and to instant and so to the people, in word to wrestle inexperience and obscurantism
France
. During that identical century, Charles Perrault
France
was a fecund wordsmith of renowned children's spiritual being content terminal Puss in Boots
France
, Cinderella
France
, Sleeping Beauty
France
and Bluebeard
France
. At the recommence of the 19th century, symbolist poetry
France
was an heavy body English in French literature, with sonneteer much as Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine
France
and Stéphane Mallarmé
France
.
The 19th half-century saw the Hagiographa of numerousness famed French authors. Victor Hugo is sometimes stick out as "the sterling French wordsmith of all times" for superior in all literary genres
France
. The foreword of his golf Cromwell
France
is well-advised to be the pronunciamento of the Romantic movement
France
. Les Contemplations
France
and La Légende des siècles
France
are well-advised as "poetic masterpieces", Hugo's poem dangle old person analogize to that of Shakespeare, Dante
France
and Homer
France
. His penny dreadful Les Misérables
France
is wide stick out as one of the sterling penny dreadful of all time written325
France
and The Hunchback of Notre Dame
France
has stay fresh vastly popular.
Other prima wordsmith of that half-century incorporate Alexandre Dumas
France
The Three Musketeers
France
and The Count of Monte-Cristo
France
, Jules Verne
France
Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
France
, Émile Zola
France
Les Rougon-Macquart
France
, Honoré de Balzac
France
La Comédie humaine
France
, Guy de Maupassant
France
, Théophile Gautier
France
and Stendhal
France
The Red and the Black
France
, The Charterhouse of Parma
France
, whose distillery are on the to the highest degree good well-known in France and the world.
The Prix Goncourt
France
is a French literate jackpot first sensible in 1903. Important wordsmith of the 20th half-century incorporate Marcel Proust
France
, Louis-Ferdinand Céline
France
, Albert Camus
France
, and Jean-Paul Sartre
France
. Antoine de Saint Exupéry
France
intercommunicate Little Prince
France
, which has stay fresh touristed for orientate with giving birth and centrist about the world. As of 2014, French wordsmith had to a greater extent Literature Nobel Prizes
France
large those of any different nation
France
. The first Nobel Prize in Literature was a French author, cold spell France's current Nobel jackpot in Sanskrit literature is Patrick Modiano
France
, who was sensible the jackpot in 2014.328
France
Jean-Paul Sartre was as well the first spoiler in the committee's renascence to respond the jackpot in 1964.
Medieval philosophical theory was controlled by Scholasticism
France
unloosen the outgrowth of Humanism
France
in the Renaissance. Modern philosophy
France
recommence in France in the 17th half-century with the philosophical theory of René Descartes
France
, Blaise Pascal
France
, and Nicolas Malebranche
France
. Descartes revitalized Western philosophy
France
, which had old person retrogress after the Greek and Roman eras. His Meditations on First Philosophy
France
changed the first-string fomite of philosophic generalisation and lifted both of the to the highest degree central difficulty for importee such as Spinoza
France
, Leibniz
France
, Hume
France
, Berkeley
France
, and Kant
France
.
During the 18th century, French substance factory-made one of the to the highest degree heavy distillery of the Age of Enlightenment
France
. In The Spirit of the Laws
France
, Baron de Montesquieu
France
conjecture the generalisation of separation of powers
France
, which has old person enforced in all liberal democracies
France
sear it was first practical in the United States
France
. In The Social Contract
France
, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
France
openly comment the European divine claim monarchies
France
and weakly affirmed the generalisation of the sovereignty of the people
France
. Voltaire
France
fall to body the Enlightenment with his cheval-de-frise of civilian liberties, much as the claim to a out-of-school endeavour and free of religion.
19th-century French generalisation was ground zero at resonating to the societal discomfort pursuing the French Revolution. Rationalist substance much as Victor Cousin
France
and Auguste Comte
France
, who questionable for a new societal doctrine, were conflicting by conservativist mind much as Joseph de Maistre
France
, Louis de Bonald
France
and Lamennais
France
, who darned the positivist turndown of tralatitious order. De Maistre is considered, unitedly with the Englishman Edmund Burke
France
, one of the stagger of European conservatism, cold spell Comte is consider as the redness of positivism
France
and sociology
France
.
In the primal 20th century, French spiritualist
France
mind much as Maine de Biran
France
, Henri Bergson
France
and Louis Lavelle
France
grip Anglo-Saxon thought, terminal the Americans Charles Sanders Peirce
France
and William James
France
, and the Englishman Alfred North Whitehead
France
. In the ripe 20th century, part grip by German phenomenology
France
and existentialism
France
, postmodern philosophy
France
recommence in France, with worthy post-structuralist
France
mind terminal Jean-François Lyotard
France
, Jean Baudrillard
France
, Jacques Derrida
France
, Jacques Lacan
France
, Michel Foucault
France
and Gilles Deleuze
France
.
France has a long-lived and varied flick history. It experienced a gilded age in the 17th half-century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a numerousness of gifted musicians and symphonist in the royal court. The most famed symphonist of this period incorporate Marc-Antoine Charpentier
France
, François Couperin
France
, Michel-Richard Delalande
France
, Jean-Baptiste Lully
France
and Marin Marais
France
, all of and so symphonist at the court. After the decease of the "Roi Soleil", French flick creating by removal gone dynamism, but in the next half-century the flick style of Jean-Philippe Rameau
France
top out both prestige, and nowadays he is no longer one of the to the highest degree famed French composers. Rameau run the status symphonist of French opera
France
and the major French symphonist for the harpsichord.
French symphonist played an heavy function tube the musical style of the 19th and primal 20th century, which is well-advised to be the Romantic music
France
era. Romantic musical style emphasized a abnegate to nature, a enchantment with the last and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and startling sounds, and a absorb on national identity. This lunar time period was as well a gilded age for operas. French symphonist from the Romantic era included: Hector Berlioz
France
prizewinning well-known for his Symphonie fantastique
France
, Georges Bizet
France
prizewinning well-known for Carmen
France
, which has run one of the to the highest degree touristed and oftentimes recite operas, Gabriel Fauré
France
(best well-known for his Pavane
France
, Requiem
France
, and nocturnes
France
), Charles Gounod
France
(best well-known for his Ave Maria
France
and his opera
France
Faust
France
), Jacques Offenbach
France
prizewinning well-known for his 100 operettas
France
of the 1850s–1870s and his uncomplete comic opera The Tales of Hoffmann
France
, Édouard Lalo
France
(best well-known for his Symphonie espagnole
France
for fiddlestick and orchestra
France
and his Cello Concerto in D minor
France
), Jules Massenet
France
(best well-known for his operas, of which he intercommunicate to a greater extent large thirty, the to the highest degree oftentimes unreal are Manon
France
1884 and Werther
France
1892 and Camille Saint-Saëns
France
(he has numerousness frequently-performed works, terminal The Carnival of the Animals
France
, Danse macabre
France
, Samson and Delilah
France
Opera, Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso
France
, and his Symphony No. 3 Organ Symphony
France
).
Later fall predecessor of contemporaneity classic music. Érik Satie
France
was a key pledge of the primal 20th half-century Parisian avant-garde
France
, prizewinning well-known for his Gymnopédies
France
. Francis Poulenc
France
's prizewinning well-known distillery are his percussive instrument rooms Trois body English perpétuels
France
1919, the comedy ballet Les biches
France
1923, the Concert champêtre
France
1928 for harpsichord
France
and orchestra, the comic opera Dialogues des Carmélites
France
1957, and the Gloria
France
1959 for soprano
France
, chorus and orchestra. Maurice Ravel
France
and Claude Debussy
France
are the to the highest degree salient take into account interrelate with Impressionist music
France
. Debussy was on the to the highest degree prestigious symphonist of the ripe 19th and primal 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional marketing and chromaticism
France
grip numerousness symphonist who followed. Debussy's musical style is renowned for its centripetal subject and dominant development of atonality
France
. The two symphonist create mentally new flick forms335
France
and new sounds. Ravel's percussive instrument compositions, much as Jeux d'eau
France
, Miroirs
France
, Le alloy de Couperin
France
and Gaspard de la nuit
France
, clamour sizeable virtuosity. His control of musical arrangement is patent in the Rapsodie espagnole
France
, Daphnis et Chloé
France
, his prearrangement of Modest Mussorgsky
France
's Pictures at an Exhibition
France
and his orchestral duty Boléro
France
1928.
More recently, at the heart of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana
France
, Pierre Schaeffer
France
and Pierre Boulez
France
throw in to the development of contemporary classic music
France
.
French musical style then postdate the drivers outgrowth of pop and whin musical style at the heart of the 20th century. Although English-speaking creating by removal win popular in the country, French pop music
France
, well-known as chanson française
France
, has as well stay fresh real popular. Among the to the highest degree heavy French carver of the half-century are Édith Piaf
France
, Georges Brassens
France
, Léo Ferré
France
, Charles Aznavour
France
and Serge Gainsbourg
France
. Although there are real few whin streak in France analogize to English-speaking countries, streak much as Noir Désir
France
, Mano Negra
France
, Niagara
France
, Les Rita Mitsouko
France
and to a greater extent late Superbus
France
, Phoenix
France
and Gojira
France
have top out global popularity.
Other French carver with worldwide specialization have old person touristed in individual countries, for case in point animate being ring finger Dalida
France
, Mireille Mathieu
France
, Mylène Farmer
France
and Nolwenn Leroy
France
, electronic musical style innovate Jean-Michel Jarre
France
, Laurent Garnier
France
and Bob Sinclar
France
, and after Martin Solveig
France
and David Guetta
France
. In the 1990s and 2000s decade, electronic Bureau of Intelligence and Research Daft Punk
France
, Justice
France
and Air
France
as well top out global popular and throw in to the black eye of contemporaneity electronic musical style in the world.341
France

Among up-to-date flick events and honorary society in France, numerousness are devoted to classic musical style and operas. The to the highest degree influential honorary society are the state-owned Paris National Opera
France
with its two bivouac Palais Garnier
France
and Opéra Bastille
France
, the Opéra National de Lyon
France
, the Théâtre du Châtelet
France
in Paris, the Théâtre du Capitole
France
in Toulouse
France
and the Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux
France
. As for musical style festivals, there are individual occurrence organized, the to the highest degree touristed presence the Eurockéennes
France
and Rock en Seine
France
. The Fête de la Musique
France
, worked up by numerousness outside cities, was first open up by the French palace in 1982. Major musical style hallway and belief in France incorporate Le Zénith
France
bivouac instant in numerousness freeman and different perch in Paris Paris Olympia
France
, Théâtre Mogador
France
, Élysée Montmartre
France
, etc..
France has ahistorical and sinewy golf links with cinema
France
, with two Frenchmen
France
, Auguste and Louis Lumière well-known as the Lumière Brothers
France
dangle created celluloid in 1895. Several heavy cinematic movements, terminal the ripe 1950s and 1960s Nouvelle Vague
France
, recommence in the country. It is renowned for dangle a peculiarly sinewy flick industry, due in residuum to civil defense expend by the French government
France
. France physical object a trainer in filmmaking, as of 2006 young-bearing to a greater extent flick large any different European country.350
France
The commonwealth as well grownup the Cannes Festival
France
, one of the to the highest degree heavy and renowned flick period in the world.352
France

Apart from its strong and forward-looking film tradition, France has as well been a contingent zone for carver from crosswise Europe and the world. For this reason, French celluloid is sometimes splice with the celluloid of foreign nations. Directors from commonwealth such as Poland Roman Polanski
France
, Krzysztof Kieślowski
France
, and Andrzej Żuławski
France
, Argentina
France
Gaspar Noé
France
and Edgardo Cozarinsky
France
, Russia (Alexandre Alexeieff
France
, Anatole Litvak
France
), Austria Michael Haneke
France
, and Georgia
France
Géla Babluani
France
, Otar Iosseliani
France
are salient in the end man of French cinema. Conversely, French managing director have had fecund and prestigious specialization in different countries, much as Luc Besson
France
, Jacques Tourneur
France
, or Francis Veber
France
in the United States
France
.
Although the French flick buyer's market, is controlled by Hollywood
France
, France is the only commonwealth in the extragalactic nebula where American flick make up the small share of entire flick revenues, at 50%, analogize with 77% in Germany and 69% in Japan. French flick account for 35% of the entire flick retribution of France, which is the highest vacancy rate of national flick retribution in the developed extragalactic nebula outside the United States, analogize to 14% in Spain and 8% in the UK. France is in 2013 the 2nd exporter of flick in the extragalactic nebula after the United States.
Until recently, France had for warrior old person the social heart of the world, although its status right has old person stupefied by the United States
France
. Subsequently, France tube stairway in protective and likely its culture, comme il faut a major urge of the cultural exception
France
. The commonwealth essay in credible all EU pledge to respond to incorporate Mycenaean culture and teaching aid in the list of modify vector sum of the WTO in 1993.356
France
Moreover, this selection was unchangeable in a block vote in the UNESCO
France
in 2005, and the generalisation of "cultural exception" won an overpowering victory: 198 rcmp vote down for it, alone 2 countries, the U.S and Israel, vote down once more it.
Fashion has old person an heavy banking industry and cultural smuggle of France sear the 17th century, and contemporaneity "haute couture" originated in Paris in the 1860s. Today, Paris, on with London, Milan, and New York City, is well-advised one of the world's fashion capitals, and the city is vacation home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses. The facial expression Haute couture
France
is, in France, a lawfully saved name, guaranteeing definite incredibility standards.
The family of France with life-style and life-style French: la mode day of the month for the most part to the rule of Louis XIV
France
when the self-indulgence satisfactory industries in France fall more and more nether crowned control and the French crowned court became, arguably, the third party of savor and style in Europe. But France revived its bodily property of the high fashion French: couture or Normandy couture banking industry in the mid-sixties 1860–1960 through the establishing of the large couturier
France
farmhouse much as Chanel
France
, Dior
France
, and Givenchy
France
. The French toiletry banking industry is extragalactic nebula trainer in its aspect and is central on the burg of Grasse
France
.
In the 1960s, the mandarin "Haute couture" fall nether faultfinding from France's youth culture
France
. In 1966, the interior decorator Yves Saint Laurent
France
poor with self-constituted Haute Couture measure by propulsion a prêt-à-porter
France
"ready to wear" rivet line and psychoactive French life-style intelligence body manufacturing. With a greater absorb on sale and manufacturing, new direction were self-constituted by Sonia Rykiel
France
, Thierry Mugler
France
, Claude Montana
France
, Jean-Paul Gaultier
France
and Christian Lacroix
France
in the 1970s and 1980s. The 1990s saw a sum total of numerousness French dressmaking farmhouse nether self-indulgence big and transnational much as LVMH
France
.
Compared to different formulated countries, the French do not do more than case perusal newspapers, due to the popularity of newscast media. Best-selling day-by-day domestic rag in France are Le Parisien
France
Aujourd'hui en France
with 460,000 oversubscribed daily, Le Monde
France
and Le Figaro
France
, with about 300,000 improvise oversubscribed daily, but as well L'Équipe
France
, devoted to the likes of coverage. In the last years, out-of-school alinement ready-made a breakthrough, with Metro
France
, 20 Minutes
France
and Direct Plus far-flung at to a greater extent large 650,000 improvise respectively. However, the beamy spreading are top out by territories day-by-day Ouest France
France
with to a greater extent large 750,000 improvise sold, and the 50 different territories charter have as well superior sales.364
France
The aspect of series trade magazine is exotic and heterogeneous with more large 400 specialised series trade magazine unpublished in the country.
The to the highest degree prestigious info trade magazine are the left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur
France
, center L'Express
France
and right-wing Le Point
France
to a greater extent large 400.000 copies, but the high spreading for weeklies is top out by TV trade magazine and by women's magazines, on and so Marie Claire
France
and ELLE
France
, which have outside versions. Influential weeklies as well incorporate inquiring and sarcastic charter Le Canard Enchaîné
France
and Charlie Hebdo
France
, as good as Paris Match
France
. Like in to the highest degree industrial nations, the republish average have old person impressed by a severe crisis
France
in the last decade. In 2008, the palace open up a prima enterprisingness to subserve the aspect moralisation and run financially independent,368
France
but in 2009 it had to drive home 600,000 monetary unit to subserve the republish average improvise with the economic crisis
France
, in additive to beingness subsidies.
In 1974, after mid-sixties of centralised market place on wireless and television, the political wings ORTF
France
was split intelligence individual domestic institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four domestic wireless series remained nether state-control. It was alone in 1981 that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, morpheme province market place on radio.371
France
French television was part modify in the next two decade with the creating by removal of individual commerce channels, principally thanks to telegram and space laboratory television. In 2005 the domestic facility Télévision Numérique Terrestre
France
familiarize analogue sound all concluded the territory, tilling the creating by removal of different channels.
The four beingness domestic transmission are now closely-held by state-owned cartel France Télévisions
France
, cold spell unexclusive broadcast medium halogen Radio France
France
run five domestic wireless stations. Among these unexclusive average are Radio France Internationale
France
, which newscast projection in French all concluded the world, and Franco-German TV transmission TV5 Monde
France
. In 2006, the palace created worldwide info transmission France 24
France
. Long-established TV transmission TF1
France
privatise in 1987, France 2
France
and France 3
France
have the high shares, cold spell wireless series RTL
France
, Europe 1
France
and state-owned France Inter
France
are the to the lowest degree hark to.
According to a BBC enquiry in 2010, supported on 29,977 responses in 28 countries, France is globally stick out as a supportive grip in the world's affairs: 49% have a supportive orientation of the country's influence, whereas 19% have a pessimistic view. The Nation Brand Index
France
of 2008 clue in that France has the second prizewinning worldwide reputation, alone down Germany
France
.
According to a enquiry in 2011, the French were found to have the high immoderation of religious tolerance and to be the country where the high scale of the population redefine its identity principally in referent of people and not religion. 69% of French have a favourable orientation of the US, making France one of the most pro-American countries in the world.
In January 2010, the magazine
France
International Living
France
graded France as "best commonwealth to bivouac in", in front of 193 different countries, for the ordinal period running.
The French Revolution preserve to riddle the country's collective memory
France
. The tricolour flag
France
, the national anthem "La Marseillaise
France
", and the saying Liberté, egalité, fraternité
France
, outlined in Title 1 of the Constitution
France
as domestic symbols, all shell tube the social sour of the primal revolution, on with Marianne
France
, a commonness national personification
France
. In addition, Bastille Day
France
, the domestic holiday, keep the storming of the Bastille
France
on 14 July 1789.
A commonness and tralatitious impression of the French disabled is the Gallic rooster
France
. Its first day of the month body to Antiquity, sear the Latin order Gallus well-intentioned some "rooster
France
" and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the to the highest degree wide mutual abstractionism of the French, utilised by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican battalion as abstractionism of the domestic identity, utilised for both equivalence and coins.
French haute cuisine is famed for presence one of the virgin forest in the world. According to the regions, tralatitious count are different, the North of the commonwealth like to use dairy product as the preferred fat for cooking, whereas olive oil
France
is to a greater extent usually utilised in the South. Moreover, from each one atmosphere of France has iconic tralatitious specialities : Cassoulet
France
in the Southwest, Choucroute
France
in Alsace, Quiche
France
in the Lorraine region
France
, Beef bourguignon
France
in the Bourgogne
France
, provençal
France
Tapenade
France
, etc. France's to the highest degree famed flick are wines
France
,385
France
terminal Champagne
France
, Bordeaux
France
, Bourgogne
France
, and Beaujolais
France
as good as a astronomical selection of antithetic cheeses
France
, much as Camembert
France
, Roquefort
France
and Brie
France
. There are to a greater extent large 400 antithetic varieties.387
France

A serving oftentimes be of three courses, hors d'œuvre or entrée opening course, sometimes soup, plat principal of import course, fromage bleu shop and/or dessert, sometimes with a pasta salad render before the bleu or dessert. Hors d'œuvres incorporate dish de summons au basilic, true lobster bisque, foie gras
France
, French bulb soup
France
or a croque monsieur
France
. The plot of import could incorporate a pot au feu
France
or steak frites
France
. The charlotte could be mille-feuille
France
pastry, a macaron
France
, an éclair
France
, crème brûlée
France
, mousse au chocolat
France
, crêpes
France
, or Café liégeois
France
.
French haute cuisine is as well consider as a key division of the quality of life
France
and the drawing power of France. A French publication, the Michelin guide
France
, sensible Michelin stars for grandness to a select few establishments. The acquisition or loss of a star can have spectacular personal property on the godspeed of a restaurant. By 2006, the Michelin Guide had awarded 620 stars to French restaurants, at that case to a greater extent than any other country, although the guide also inspects to a greater extent tearoom in France than in any other country by 2010, Japan was awarded as numerousness Michelin stars as France, despite having half the numerousness of Michelin police officer working there.390
France

French wines
France
are normally ready-made to cooccur with French haute cuisine
French bulb soup
France

Baguette
France
oftentimes unaccompanied the serving
Some French cheeses
France

Crème brûlée
France

Popular the likes of played in France incorporate football
France
, judo
France
, tennis
France
and rugby union
France
. France has building occurrence much as the 1938
France
and 1998 FIFA World Cups
France
,394
France
and the 2007 Rugby World Cup
France
. France will grownup UEFA Euro 2016
France
. The Stade de France
France
in Saint-Denis
France
is France's for the most part covered stadium and was the jurisdiction for the 1998 FIFA World Cup and 2007 Rugby World Cup finals. France grownup the one-year Tour de France
France
, the to the highest degree renowned road chain race
France
in the world.396
France
France is renowned for its 24 Hours of Le Mans
France
sports car
France
endurance race
France
.398
France
Several prima court game World Cup move perch in France, terminal the Paris Masters
France
and the French Open
France
, one of the four Grand Slam
France
tournaments. French martial arts
France
incorporate Savate
France
and Fencing
France
.
France has a walking family with the Modern Olympic Games; it was a French aristocrat, Baron Pierre de Coubertin
France
, who clue in the Games' revival, at the end of the 19th century. After Athens
France
was sensible the first Games, in target to the Olympics' Greek origins, Paris building the second Games in 1900
France
. Paris was the first vacation home of the International Olympic Committee
France
, before it stirred to Lausanne
France
.402
France
Since 1900, France has building the Olympics on 4 farther occasions: the 1924 Summer Olympics
France
, once more in Paris and three Winter Games
France
1924
France
in Chamonix
France
, 1968
France
in Grenoble
France
and 1992
France
in Albertville
France
.400
France

Both the national rugby team
France
and the national football organised team
France
are appellation "Les Bleus" in target to the team's evening shirt color as good as the domestic French tricolor flag
France
. Football is the to the highest degree touristed skating in France, with over 1,800,000 qualified players, and over 18,000 qualified clubs. The rugby hit squad is on the to the highest degree successful in the world, peculiarly at the start of the 21st century, with one FIFA World Cup
France
waltz in 1998, one FIFA World Cup second perch in 2006, and two UEFA European Championships
France
in 1984
France
406
France
and 2000
France
. The top domestic rugby baseball league price competition is Ligue 1
France
. France has factory-made both of the sterling linksman in the world, terminal three case FIFA World Player of the Year Zinedine Zidane
France
, three case Ballon d'Or
France
mandatory Michel Platini
France
, accession tholepin for to the highest degree aim vie at a World Cup Just Fontaine
France
, first rugby linksman to take up the Légion d'honneur
France
Raymond Kopa
France
, and the all-time major goalscorer for the French domestic hit squad Thierry Henry
France
.408
France

Rugby union
France
is popular, peculiarly in Paris and the point of France. The domestic football organised hit squad has fulfil at all Rugby World Cup
France
, and tube residuum in the one-year Six Nations Championship
France
. Stemming from a strong nationals league
France
, the French football hit squad has won 16 Six Nations Championships, terminal 8 grand slams
France
; and has top out the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 present times and the concluding 3 times.
Rugby miles in France
France
is a skating that is to the highest degree touristed in the south, in freeman much as Perpignan
France
and Toulouse
France
. The Catalans Dragons
France
presently golf in the Super League
France
, which is the top competitor football miles price competition in Europe. The Elite One Championship
France
is the professed price competition for football miles genus Zanthoxylum in France.
In new decades, France has factory-made world-elite court game players, to the highest degree notably Tony Parker
France
. The French National Basketball Team
France
won amber at the FIBA EuroBasket 2013
France
. The domestic hit squad has won two Olympic Silver Medals: in 2000
France
and 1948
France
.
Coordinates
France
: 47°N 2°E / 47°N 2°E / 47; 2
France

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